Essential Hypertension and Its Causes: Neural and Non-Neural Mechanisms

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9780195094831: Essential Hypertension and Its Causes: Neural and Non-Neural Mechanisms

Essential hypertension (EH) is the most common type of high blood pressure and is responsible for much death and serious illness, which has been the reason for the huge research effort to determine its causes. However, countless scientific articles still keep proclaiming that "the causes of essential hypertension remain unknown." In view of the number of publications that descend on the hypertension specialist like a waterfall, such proclamations seem to overlook the considerable amount of knowledge that we already have about the etiology of EH. The problem may be a lack of synthesis rather than a lack of information. This book provides a unique synthesis of the pathophysiology of essential hypertension (EH), which is limited through the brain and is critically dependent on both genetic and environmental factors such as stress, high salt intake and obesity. Korner analyses the mechanisms by which the various factors raise blood pressure and the pathophysiology of EH compared with that in renal hypertension and in some of the rat models of genetic hypertension. In some individuals stress-induced vasoconstriction enhances the brain's responsiveness to salt, giving rise to stress-and-salt-related EH. In others, stress-induced EH promotes eating, causing hypertensive obesity. Improving lifestyle through regular exercise and reduction of salt and calorie intake directly antagonises the environmental causes of EH, and has implications for prevenion and treatment.

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Recensione:

...an invaluable resource to physicians and researchers in hypertension...essential. ( British Journal of Hospital Medicine)

Dr Korner successfully integrates vast amounts of information learned from research on the pathogenesis of essential hypertension into one comprehensive reference. Initial alterations of neural pressure regulatory systems are expertly detailed providing targeted areas for expanded research. ( Doody's Notes)

Contenuti:

  • I. Introduction
  • 1: A Short History and some Clinical Aspects
  • II. Biological Control
  • 2: The Nature of the Cardiovascular Control System
  • 3: Blood Pressure Genetics
  • III. Input-Output Analysis: Pointers to Neural Involvement
  • 4: Human Arterial Pressure
  • 5: Output Patterns in Non-Obese Hypertensives
  • IV. Intrinsic Cardiovascular Properties in Hypertension
  • 6: The Peripheral Vascular Integrator
  • 7: Cardiac Performance
  • V. Interactive Aspects of Neural Circulatory Control
  • 8: CNS Cardiovascular Pathways: Role of Fast and Slow Transmitters
  • 9: Whole-Organism Baroreflexes
  • 10: Exercise Training and Its Long-Term Effects on Blood Pressure: Linkage to Somatic Movement
  • VI. The Brain as the Source of Lifestyle-Related Hypertension
  • 11: Psychosocial Stress and Hypertension
  • 12: Salt, Other Dietary Factors, and Blood Pressure
  • 13: Normotensive and Hypertensive Obesity
  • 14: Obstructive Sleep Apnoea
  • VII. Causes and Mechanisms of Renal and SHR Hypertension
  • 15: More About the Kidney in Hypertension
  • 16: SHR Hypertension and Its Causes
  • VIII. Synthesis
  • 17: Two Syndromes of Essential Hypertension

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Paul I. Korner
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Descrizione libro Oxford University Press, USA, 2007. Hardcover. Condizione libro: New. Codice libro della libreria SONG0195094832

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Descrizione libro Oxford University Press, 2016. Paperback. Condizione libro: New. PRINT ON DEMAND Book; New; Publication Year 2016; Not Signed; Fast Shipping from the UK. No. book. Codice libro della libreria ria9780195094831_lsuk

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Descrizione libro Oxford University Press Inc, United States, 2007. Hardback. Condizione libro: New. 236 x 145 mm. Language: English . Brand New Book ***** Print on Demand *****.Essential hypertension (EH) is the most common type of high blood pressure and is responsible for much death and serious illness, which has been the reason for the huge research effort to determine its causes. However, countless scientific articles still keep proclaiming that the causes of essential hypertension remain unknown. In view of the number of publications that descend on the hypertension specialist like a waterfall, such proclamations seem to overlook the considerable amount of knowledge that we already have about the etiology of EH. The problem may be a lack of synthesis rather than a lack of information. This book provides a unique synthesis of the pathophysiology of essential hypertension (EH), which is limited through the brain and is critically dependent on both genetic and environmental factors such as stress, high salt intake and obesity. Korner analyses the mechanisms by which the various factors raise blood pressure and the pathophysiology of EH compared with that in renal hypertension and in some of the rat models of genetic hypertension. In some individuals stress-induced vasoconstriction enhances the brain s responsiveness to salt, giving rise to stress-and-salt-related EH. In others, stress-induced EH promotes eating, causing hypertensive obesity. Improving lifestyle through regular exercise and reduction of salt and calorie intake directly antagonises the environmental causes of EH, and has implications for prevenion and treatment. Codice libro della libreria APC9780195094831

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Paul I. Korner
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ISBN 10: 0195094832 ISBN 13: 9780195094831
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Descrizione libro Oxford University Press Inc, United States, 2007. Hardback. Condizione libro: New. 236 x 145 mm. Language: English . Brand New Book ***** Print on Demand *****. Essential hypertension (EH) is the most common type of high blood pressure and is responsible for much death and serious illness, which has been the reason for the huge research effort to determine its causes. However, countless scientific articles still keep proclaiming that the causes of essential hypertension remain unknown. In view of the number of publications that descend on the hypertension specialist like a waterfall, such proclamations seem to overlook the considerable amount of knowledge that we already have about the etiology of EH. The problem may be a lack of synthesis rather than a lack of information. This book provides a unique synthesis of the pathophysiology of essential hypertension (EH), which is limited through the brain and is critically dependent on both genetic and environmental factors such as stress, high salt intake and obesity. Korner analyses the mechanisms by which the various factors raise blood pressure and the pathophysiology of EH compared with that in renal hypertension and in some of the rat models of genetic hypertension. In some individuals stress-induced vasoconstriction enhances the brain s responsiveness to salt, giving rise to stress-and-salt-related EH. In others, stress-induced EH promotes eating, causing hypertensive obesity. Improving lifestyle through regular exercise and reduction of salt and calorie intake directly antagonises the environmental causes of EH, and has implications for prevenion and treatment. Codice libro della libreria APC9780195094831

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Descrizione libro Oxford University Press, USA, 2007. Hardcover. Condizione libro: New. 1. Codice libro della libreria DADAX0195094832

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Paul I. Korner
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Descrizione libro Oxford University Press, USA. Hardcover. Condizione libro: New. This item is printed on demand. Hardcover. 720 pages. This new account of the pathogenesis of essential hypertension (EH) represents a detailed analysis of the main components of the circulatory control system. The latters properties resemble those of man-made adaptive control systems in which regulatory parameters are altered when operating conditions exceed certain limits, often through neural mechanisms. Inheritance of EH depends on both genes and environment. The high blood pressure (BP) genes have not yet been definitively identified, whilst the main environmental causes are mental stress, high dietary salt intake and obesity. EH occurs as two major syndromes, each initiated by chronic stress: 1) Stress-and-salt related EH, and 2) Hypertensive obesity. Stress is perceived by the cortex, from which increased dopaminergic (DA) neuron activity stimulates the hypothalamic defense area, raising sympathetic neural activity (SNA) and BP. Normally these subside quickly when the stress is over, but in those susceptible to EH the DA synapses become sensitized so that the defense response is evoked by ever lower levels of stress. Sensitization is common in memory circuits, but not in autonomic neurons, so that this property in EH may be genetically determined. Stress-related hypertension increases hypothalamic responsiveness to high salt, resulting in further rises in SNA and BP. Later, non-neural functional changes (e. g. reduction in nitric oxide) and the structural remodeling of resistance vessels further enhance the vasoconstriction. In contrast, in those developing hypertensive obesity food consumption is excessive, which transiently alleviates stress-related anxiety. The brain ignores the leptin-mediated signals that normally curb appetite, contrasting with normal energy regulation in SSR-EH. In hypertensive obesity, the SNA pattern is similar to that in SSR-EH, but vasoconstriction is masked by vasodilatation and fluid retention due to hyperinsulinemia. This syndrome is a volume overload hypertension, where high cardiac output, renal impairment and other non-neural factors contribute to the elevation of BP. Other topics include the role of various transmitters in autonomic regulation; the place of baroreflexes in the intact organism; why exercise training lowers resting BP; obstructive sleep apnea; non-pharmacological and drug treatment of EH; the role of the kidney in EH and in different types of renal hypertension and the pathogenesis of the Japanese spontaneously hypertensive rat, which provides a valuable animal model for EH. The work suggests that physiological systems analysis in a complex disorder like EH is a valuable tool for using the great advances in molecular biology to best advantage. This item ships from La Vergne,TN. Hardcover. Codice libro della libreria 9780195094831

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