William Nesse Introduction to Mineralogy

ISBN 13: 9780199827381

Introduction to Mineralogy

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9780199827381: Introduction to Mineralogy

The second edition of iIntroduction to Mineralogyr follows the highly successful first edition, which become an overnight market leader. iIntroduction to Mineralogyr consolidates much of the material now covered in traditional mineralogy and optical mineralogy courses and focuses on describing minerals within their geologic context. It presents the important traditional content of mineralogy including crystallography, chemical bonding, controls on mineral structure, mineral stability, and crystal growth to provide a foundation that enables students to understand the nature and occurrence of minerals. Physical, optical, and X-ray powder diffraction techniques of mineral study are described in detail, and common chemical analytical methods are outlined as well. Detailed descriptions of over 100 common minerals are provided, and the geologic context within which these minerals occur is emphasized. Appendices provide tables and diagrams to help students with mineral identification, using both physical and optical properties. Numerous line drawings, photographs, and photomicrographs help make complex concepts understandable. iIntroduction to Mineralogyr is available with Daniel Schulze's iAn Atlas of Minerals in Thin Sectionr for a nominal additional fee.

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Contenuti:

Chapter 1. Introduction Minerals Mineraloids Mineralogy Mineral Nomenclature General References on Mineralogy References Cited and Suggestions for Additional Reading Chapter 2. Crystallography Introduction Translational Symmetry Plane Lattices Translational Symmetry: 3-D Space Lattices and Unit Cell Bravais Lattices & Crystal Systems Point Symmetry Reflection Rotation Inversion Compound Symmetry Operations Symmetry Notation 32 Point Groups Steno's Law Measurement of Crystal Angles Determining Crystal System and Crystal Class Space Groups Crystal Faces Laws of Haüy and Bravais Miller Indices Indices and Crystal Axes in the Hexagonal Crystal System Determining Miller Index Assigning Miller Indexes by Inspection Crystallographic Directions Zones Crystal Forms Isometric Forms Non-isometric Forms Combining Crystal Forms Enantiomorphous Forms and Crystals Positive and Negative Forms Forms in the Six Crystal Systems Triclinic Crystal System Monoclinic Crystal System Orthorhombic Crystal System Tetragonal Crystal System Hexagonal Crystal System Isometric Crystal System Crystal Habit References Cited and Suggestions for Additional Reading Chapter 3 Crystal Chemistry Introduction The Nature of Chemical Elements Nucleus Electrons Formation of Ions Abundance of the Elements Chemical Bonding Valence-related bonding Relation among the Valence-dependent Bonds Bonds Not Involving Valence Electrons Size of Atoms and Ions Oxidation State Coordination References Cited and Suggestions for Additional Reading Chapter 4: Crystal Structure Introduction Controls of Crystal Structure Structure Controls with Metallic Bonding Structure Controls with Covalent Bonding Structural Controls with Molecular Crystals Structure Controls with Ionic Bonding Application of Pauling's Rules Illustrating Mineral Structures Isostructural Minerals Polymorphism Reconstructive Polymorphism Displacive Polymorphism Order-Disorder Polymorphism Polytypism Mineral Classification Compositional Variation in Minerals Substitutional Solid Solution 4.30 Mineral Formulas Graphical Representation Binary diagrams Ternary diagrams References Cited & Suggestions for Additional Reading Chapter 5: Mineral Growth Introduction Mineral Stability 5.3 Stability 5.3 Gibbs Free Energy 5.4 Mineral reactions 5.6 Mineral Nucleation 5.9 Homogeneous Nucleation 5.9 Heterogeneous nucleation 5.15 Crystal Growth. 5.16 Rate of growth 5.18 Zoned Crystals 5.21 Structural Defects 5.25 Point Defects 5.26 Line Defects 5.28 Planar Defects 5.31 Twinning 5.33 Post-crystallization Processes 5.40 Ordering 5.40 Twinning 5.41 Recrystallization 5.41 Exsolution 5.43 Radioactivity and Minerals 5.45 References Cited and Suggestions for Additional Reading 5.51 Section II: Mineral Properties, Study, and Identification Chapter 6: Physical Properties of Minerals 6.1 Introduction 6.2 Mass Dependent Properties 6.2 Density 6.2 Specific Gravity 6.3 Properties Related to Mechanical Cohesion 6.7 Hardness 6.7 Tenacity 6.10 Cleavage 6.10 Fracture 6.12 Parting 6.13 Color and Luster 6.14 Light 6.14 Perception of Color 6.15 Mineral Luster 6.17 Mineral Color 6.18 Color From Mechanical Causes 6.25 Consistency of Mineral Color 6.27 Streak 6.27 Luminescence 6.28 Magnetism 6.31 Diamagnetism 6.32 Paramagnetism 6.33 Ferromagnetism 6.34 Ferrimagnetism 6.35 Electrical Properties 6.37 Electrical Conductivity 6.37 Piezoelectricity 6.38 Pyroelectricity 6.40 Miscellaneous Properties 6.41 References Cited and Suggestions for Additional Reading 6.43 Chapter 7: Optical Mineralogy 7.1 Introduction 7.3 Light 7.4 Light Waves 7.4 Polarized Light 7.6 Interaction of Light and Matter 7.7 Optically Isotropic vs. Anisotropic Materials 7.8 Reflection and Refraction 7.9 Dispersion 7.11 Petrographic Microscope 7.11 Illuminator 7.12 Substage Assembly 7.12 Microscope Stage 7.14 Objective Lenses 7.14 Upper Polarizer 7.15 Bertrand Lens 7.16 Oculars 7.16 Focusing Mechanism 7.18 Accessories 7.18 Direction Conventions 7.19 Isotropic Materials 7.19 Anisotropic Minerals 7.21 Interference Phenomena 7.22 Use of the Interference Color Chart 7.28 Extinction 7.32 Function of Accessory Plates 7.33 Optical Indicatrix 7.38 Isotropic Indicatrix 7.39 Uniaxial Indicatrix 7.40 Biaxial Indicatrix 7.45 Mineral Color & Pleochroism 7.51 Isotropic Minerals 7.51 Uniaxial Minerals 7.52 Biaxial 7.52 Extinction Angle and Sign of Elongation 7.53 Extinction Angle 7.53 Sign of Elongation 7.54 Categories of Extinction 7.55 Extinction in Uniaxial Minerals 7.57 Extinction in Biaxial Minerals 7.58 Interference Figures 7.59 Uniaxial Interference Figures 7.59 Biaxial Interference Figure 7.63 Refractometry: Measurement of Index of Refraction 7.75 Immersion Method 7.75 Refractometry in Thin Section 7.81 Isotropic Minerals 7.82 Uniaxial Minerals 7.82 Biaxial Minerals 7.84 Reflected-Light Optics 7.87 Observation in Plane Polarized Light 7.88 Observations with Crossed Polarizers 7.89 Tactics for Mineral Identification 7.90 Thin section identification 7.91 Grain Mount Identification 7.94 Polished section identification 7.96 References Cited and Suggestions for Additional Reading 7.98 Chapter 8. Introduction to X-ray Crystallography 8.1 Introduction 8.2 X-rays 8.3 X-ray Generation 8.3 X-ray Detection 8.6 X-ray Diffraction 8.8 Powder Method 8.10 Sample Preparation 8.10 Instrumental Output 8.11 Data Reduction 8.13 Powder Diffraction File 8.14 Bragg Reflection Indices 8.15 Mineral Identification 8.16 Mixed Samples 8.20 Estimation of Relative Mineral Abundance 8.21 Estimation of Composition 8.21 Determining Unit Cell Parameters 8.22 References Cited and Suggestions for Additional Reading 8.23 Chapter 9. Chemical Analysis of Minerals 9.1 Introduction 9.2 Analytical Methods 9.2 Wet Chemical 9.2 Electron Probe Microanalysis 9.3 X-ray Fluorescence 9.6 Mass Spectrometry 9.7 Conventions in Reporting Chemical Analyses 9.8 Conversion of Chemical Analyses to Structural Formulas 9.11 References Cited and Suggestions for Additional Reading 9.15 Chapter 10. Strategies for Study 10.1 Introduction 10.2 Mineral Identification Tactics 10.3 Mineral Separation 10.3 Hand Sample Identification 10.8 Thin Section Identification 10.10 Grain Mount Identification 10.12 Polished Section Identification 10.13 X-ray Diffraction 10.13 Mineral Association 10.14 Problems in Paradise 10.15 References Cited and Suggestions for Additional Reading 10.17 Index 10.20 Section III: Mineral Descriptions Chapter 11. Silicates 11.1 Introduction 11.2 Silicate Structure and Classification 11.3 Mafic vs. Felsic 11.5 Igneous Rocks 11.6 Magmatic Processes 11.11 Igneous Environments 11.14 Terrigenous Sedimentary Rocks 11.17 Sedimentary Processes 11.19 Sedimentary Environments 11.24 Metamorphic Rocks 11.27 Metamorphic Variables 11.28 Metamorphic Processes 11.31 Metamorphic Grade, Facies, Mineral Zone Boundaries and Isograds 11.34 Major Compositional Groups of Metamorphic Rocks 11.36 Metamorphic Environments 11.39 References Cited and Suggestions for Additional Reading 11.43 Chapter 12: Framework Silicates 12.1 Introduction 12.2 Silica Group 12.3 Quartz 12.5 Tridymite 12.13 Cristobalite 12.17 Feldspar Group 12.21 Composition 12.21 Structure 12.22 Al/Si Order/Disorder 12.23 Exsolution in the Feldspars 12.29 Other Feldspar Intergrowths 12.31 Twinning 12.33 Plagioclase 12.35 K-Feldspar 12.48 Feldspathoids 12.61 Nepheline 12.61 Leucite 12.66 Sodalite 12.69 Zeolite Group 12.72 Scapolite 12.80 References Cited and Suggestions for Additional Reading 12.84 Chapter 13 Sheet Silicates 13.1 Introduction 13.2 Structure and Classification 13.2 1:1 Layer Silicates 13.6 2:1 Layer Silicates 13.6 Polytypism 13.9 TO Structures (1:1) 13.10 Serpentine (Antigorite, Chrysotile, Lizardite) 13.10 Kaolinite: 13.17 TOT Structures (2:1) 13.18 Talc 13.18 Pyrophyllite 13.21 TOT + c Structures: Mica Minerals (2:1) 13.24 Muscovite 13.24 Biotite 13.30 Glauconite 13.34 TOT + c Structures: Brittle Micas (2:1) 13.38 Margarite 13.38 Clintonite 13.40 TOT + O Structure 13.43 Chlorite 13.43 Clay Minerals 13.47 Structure and Classification 13.50 Geology of Clay 13.54 Identification 13.55 Uses 13.57 Clay in the Environment 13.58 Other Sheet Silicates 13.60 Stilpnomelane 13.60 Prehnite 13.63 Chapter 14. Chain Silicates 14.1 Introduction 14.2 Pyroxene group 14.2 Structure and Classification 14.2 Geology of Pyroxenes 14.5 Orthopyroxene 14.9 Lo-Ca Clinopyroxene 14.13 Calcic Clinopyroxene 14.16 Aegirine (Acmite), Aegirine-augite 14.21 Jadeite 14.25 Omphacite 14.28 Spodumene 14.31 Pyroxenoid Group 14.34 Introduction 14.34 Wollastonite 14.35 Rhodonite 14.38 Pectolite 14.40 Amphibole Group 14.43 Structure and Classification 14.43 Geology of Amphiboles 14.47 Orthoamphibole 14.48 Cummingtonite-Grunerite 14.52 Tremolite - Ferro-actinolite 14.56 Hornblende 14.59 Glaucophane - Riebeckite 14.64 Other amphiboles 14.68 References Cited and Suggestions for Additional Reading 14.70 Chapter 15. Disilicates and Ring Silicates 15.1 Disilicates 15.2 Structure & Classification 15.2 Zoisite 15.4 Clinozoisite-Epidote 15.7 Allanite 15.11 Lawsonite 15.14 Pumpellyite 15.17 Ring Silicates 15.20 Structure & Classification 15.21 Beryl 15.21 Cordierite 15.25 Tourmaline 15.29 References Cited and Suggestions for Additional Reading 15.35 Chapter 16. Orthosilicates 16.1 Introduction 16.2 Olivine Group 16.3 Garnet Group 16.10 Zircon 16.15 Aluminum Silicates 16.20 Andalusite 16.24 Sillimanite 16.28 Kyanite 16.30 Staurolite 16.34 Chloritoid 16.38 Titanite 16.42 Topaz 16.46 References Cited and Suggestions for Additional Reading 16.50 Chapter 17. Carbonates, Sulfates, Phosphates, Borates, Tungstates, and Molybdates 17.1 Structure and Classification 17.2 Carbonates 17.3 Rhombohedral Carbonates (Calcite and Dolomite Groups) 17.3 Calcite 17.6 Magnesite 17.12 Siderite 17.15 Rhodochrosite 17.18 Dolomite-Ankerite 17.21 Aragonite Group 17.26 Aragonite 17.26 Witherite 17.30 Strontianite 17.32 OH-Bearing Carbonates 17.35 Malachite 17.36 Azurite 17.38 Sulfates 17.41 Gypsum 17.42 Anhydrite 17.46 Barite 17.49 Phosphates 17.53 Apatite 17.54 Monazite 17.59 Xenotime 17.62 Tourquoise 17.65 Tungstates and Molybdates 17.68 Borates 17.70 References Cited and Suggestions for Additional Reading 17.72 Chapter...

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