Annual of scientific discovery. 1869

9780217443043: Annual of scientific discovery. 1869

This historic book may have numerous typos and missing text. Purchasers can download a free scanned copy of the original book (without typos) from the publisher. Not indexed. Not illustrated. 1869 Excerpt: ... lamp burns with little light and no smoke, not blackening a white plate; the ethylic lamp yields a faint trace of darkness of unconsumed carbon; the propylic and butylie lamps have cloudier flames and yield much deposit; while the amylic lamp burns dull and heavy, its light peering through smoke, and yielding enough unconsumed carbon to cover the plate in a few seconds. In combining with other elementary bodies to produce the groups of the monocarbon series, the carbon forms first a union with hydrogen, producing a new and basic substance called a radiml. When the carbon in this series combines with 3 atoms of hydrogen, it produces the radical methyl CH3, from which various compounds may be made, as follows:--Hydride of methyl (marsh gas), CHsH. Chloride of " CH3C1. Iodide of " CHsI. Bromide of " CHaBr. Fluoride of " CH3F1. Cyanide of " CHsCN. Nitrite of " CH3NO2. Methyl alcohol, C3 I O. In these the radical remains always the same, and these compounds are, in fact, salts of the radical. To come to the particular subject of this article,--if we take the hydride of methyl, or marsh gas, in which the carbon molecule is said to be saturated with hydrogen, and subject it to the action of chlorine, the chlorine can be made to replace the hydrogen, as follows: If 1 part of the hydrogen be replaced by chlorine, we have chloride of methyl, CH3C1; if 2 parts of the hydrogen be replaced by chlorine, we have a new radical, methylene CII2, combined with 2 of chlorine, forming the bichloride of methylene, the subject of this article. If 3 parts of hydrogen be replaced by chlorine we have the radical formyle CH with 3 of chlorine, forming the terchloride of formyle, or chloroform, CHCV If the whole of the hydrogen be replaced by chlorine, e...

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