The occurance of pressure surge, waterhammer or pressure transient propagation within any fluid/conduit system is normal and frequent event that accompanies any change in the system operating condition. The aim of any study of unsteady flow must therefore be to understand the mechanisms of such transient propagation so that the possible severity of any event may be determined and suitable design decisions taken. This text provides the knowledge needed by engineers for an understanding of the governing mechanisms and methods of analysis and control of pressure transients. The book discusses the causes, and develops the theory, of transient propagation, and the dependance of transient severity upon fluid and conduit properties and the mode of system operation. the authors first introduce the mechanics, explaining the equations of continuity and motion under unsteady flow conditions. Subsequent chapters develop and apply the methos of characteristics for various boundary conditions and deal with suppression and control techniques. Pressure transients occur in all fluid systems and therefore their study is one of the few areas of research in fluid mechanics that truly crosses the boundaries between the various engineering disciplines. Within the text will be found examples reanging from water supply and distribution networks to in-flight refuelling, from open channel or partially filled pipeflow free surface wave propagation in drains and sewers, to air pressure transients in vent systems amd tunnels. The mathematical methods introduced wil be shown to be equally applicable to off-shore oil platforms, hydroelectric schemes, water distribution networks, long-distance oil pipelines, aircraft fuel systems, sewers and vent systems. Simpler computer programs, based entirely on material included in the text (detailed in the appendices), are utilised to generate many of the demonstrations presented in the text and are included as an aid to further independent study. The text is intended to be equally useful to practising system designers who encounter pressure surge problems, and to student engineers.
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