Psychobiology of Consciousness

ISBN 13: 9780306401381

Psychobiology of Consciousness

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9780306401381: Psychobiology of Consciousness

CONSCIOUSNESS AND THE BRAIN SELF-REGULATION PARADOX The relationship of consciousness to biology has intrigued mankind thoroughout recorded history. However, little progress has been made not only in understanding these issues but also in raising fundamental questions central to the problem. As Davidson and Davidson note in their introduction, William James suggested, almost a century ago in his Principles of Psychology, that the brain was the organ of mind and be- havior. James went so far as to suggest that the remainder of the Principles was but a "footnote" to this central thesis. This volume brings together diverse biobehavioral scientists who are addressing the various aspects of the mindlbrainlbodylbehavior issue. Although some of the authors have previously published together in other volumes, by and large the particular combination of authors and topics selected by the editors makes this volume unique and timely. Unlike the Consciousness and Self-Regulation series (Schwartz & Shapiro, 1976, 1978), also published by Plenum, this volume is devoted entirely to a psychobiological approach to consciousness. Although readers will differ in their interest in specific chapters, the well-rounded investigator who is concerned with the psychobiology of consciousness will want to become intimately acquainted with all the views presented in this volume. As noted by the individual contributors, the topic of this volume stimulates fundamental questions which, on the surface, may appear trivial, yet, on further reflection, turn out to have deep significance.

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Contenuti:

1 Introduction: The Scientific Study of Human Consciousness in Psychobiological Perspective.- References.- 2 Consciousness and Information Processing: A Biocognitive Perspective.- 1. Introduction.- 2. A Brief Historical Overview.- 2.1. Biological Constraints on Learning Processes.- 2.2. Growth of the Developmental-Maturational Perspective.- 2.3. Constructive Nature of Perceptual Processes.- 2.4. Self-Regulation.- 3. Consciousness, Unconsciousness, and Biocognitive Structures.- 3.1. The Nature of the Unconscious.- 3.2. The Transition to Consciousness.- 3.3. Some Possible Functions of Consciousness.- 3.4. Hemispheric Specialization and the Representation of Consciousness.- 4. Influences on Biocognitive Structures and Styles of Information Processing.- 4.1. Species Characteristics.- 4.2. Genetic Influences and Individual Differences.- 4.3. Cultural and Social Influences.- 5. On Making the Unconscious Conscious.- References.- 3 Mind, Brain, and Consciousness: The Organization of Competence and Conduct.- 1. Consciousness and Information Processing.- 2. Consciousness and Self-Consciousness.- 3. Consciousness and Feelings.- 4. Consciousness and Information Measurement.- 5. Consciousness and Competency.- 6. Consciousness and Perception.- 7. Consciousness and Mind.- References.- 4 Stress-Induced Behavior: Chemotherapy without Drugs.- 1. Stress-Induced Behavior.- 1.1. Eating.- 1.2. Sexual Behavior.- 1.3. Aggression.- 1.4. Neuropharmacology of Stress-Induced Behavior.- 1.5. Parallels between Stress-Induced Behaviors in Animals and Humans.- 1.6. Possible Function of Stress-Induced Behavior.- 2. Stereotypy as a Consequence of Stress in Animals and Humans.- 2.1. Stereotypy.- 3. Why Dopamine?.- 4. Summary.- References.- 5 Redundancy in the Nervous System as Substrate for Consciousness: Relation to the Anatomy and Chemistry of Remembering.- 1. Introduction.- 2. Localization of Memory Consolidation Function.- 3. Redundancy of the Central Nervous System.- 4. Redundancy as a Neurobiological Substrate of Consciousness.- 5. Biochemistry of Memory.- 6. Conclusion.- References.- 6 Multipotentiality: A Statistical Theory of Brain Function—Evidence and Implications.- References.- 7 Genetic Factors in EEG, Sleep, and Evoked Potentials.- 1. Introduction.- 2. The Electroencephalogram—Resting and Response Measures.- 2.1. Visual Observations of Twin EEG.- 2.2. Alpha Waves.- 2.3. Alpha Blocking.- 2.4. Beta Waves.- 2.5. Complete Power Spectra.- 3. Sleep.- 3.1. Normal Sleep.- 3.2. Narcolepsy.- 4. Evoked Potentials.- 4.1. Waveform Similarity.- 4.2. EP Latency.- 4.3. EP Amplitude.- 4.4. Response to Stimulus Parameters.- 4.5. EP Asymmetry in Twins.- 5. Anatomic Features and Electrophysiology.- 6. Electrophysiology, Genetics, and Consciousness.- References.- 8 The Waking Stream of Consciousness.- 1. William James: Characteristics of Consciousness.- 2. The Variety of Conscious Experience.- 3. A Basic Model.- 3.1. The Mind as Activity.- 3.2. Sensory Input.- 3.3. A Continuum of Consciousness.- 3.4. Attention: The Ability to Screen and Select.- 3.5. A Bias Favoring Sensory Input.- 3.6. Predictable, Dull, or Barren Environments: An Opportunity for Private Processing.- 3.7. The Matching Function.- 3.8. The Affects.- 3.9. Current Concerns, Unfinished Business, and Unresolved Stress.- 3.10. Sets toward Internal or External Processing.- 3.11. Structural Characteristics of the Stimuli.- 4. The Activities of Mind and Body.- 5. The Stream of Consciousness and Brain Activity.- 6. Fantasy, Emotion, and Visual Imagination.- References.- 9 The Emergence of Emotions and the Development of Consciousness in Infancy.- 1. Biological Processes, Emotions, and Consciousness.- 1.1. Infant Consciousness as Affective Experiences.- 1.2. Affect-Perception-Cognition Relations and Levels of Consciousness.- 2. The Emergence of Emotions and Changes in Consciousness.- 2.1. Sensory-Affective Processes: Consciousness Level I.- 2.2. Affective-Perceptual Processes: Consciousness Level II.- 2.3. Affective-Cognitive Processes: Consciousness Level III.- 3. Summary.- References.- 10 A Systems Approach to Consciousness.- 1. Introduction.- 2. Some Generalities about the Systems Approach.- 3. A Particular System Model.- 3.1. Control Theory and Stabilized Consequences.- 3.2. Control Theory and Causation.- 3.3. Control Theory and Purpose.- 3.4. Control Theory and Volition.- 3.5. Ultimate Purposes.- 4. Consciousness.- 4.1. Causative Factors in the Brain.- 4.2. Ultimate Causes.- 4.3. The Nature of Consciousness: Point of View.- 5. Conclusions.- References.- 11 A Systems Approach to Altered States of Consciousness.- 1. Introduction.- 2. Constructed Nature of Ordinary Consciousness.- 3. States of Consciousness.- 4. Mapping Experience.- 5. Discrete States of Consciousness.- 6. Individual Differences.- 7. Major Subsystems of Consciousness.- 8. Stabilization of Discrete States.- 9. Induction of a Discrete Altered State.- 10. Methodological Consequences of the Systems Approach.- References.- 12 The Psychobiology of Sexual Experience.- 1. Introduction.- 1.1. The Evolutionary Background: Animal Sexual Behavior.- 1.2. From Animal Behavior to Human Sexuality.- 2. Physiology, Sensations, and Concepts of Sexuality.- 2.1. The Physiology of Sexual Arousal.- 2.2. Sexual Dualism.- 2.3. From Sexual Sensations to Sensational Sex.- 3. Orgasm as an Altered State of Consciousness (ASC).- 3.1. Psychological Phenomena.- 3.2. Physiological Phenomena.- 3.3. Psychophysiological Relationships.- 4. Sex Differences and the Role of Hormones.- 4.1. Physiological Differences.- 4.2. Psychological Differences and Psychophysiological Correlation.- 4.3. The Role of Sex Hormones.- 5. Summary.- References.- 13 The Psychophysiological Model of Meditation and Altered States of Consciousness: A Critical Review.- 1. The Meditative ASC.- 2. EEG Changes during Meditation.- 3. Oculomotor Processes and EEG.- 4. Meditation and Arousal.- 5. Specificity of the Meditative ASC.- 6. EEG, Arousal, and Sleep.- 7. Meditation and Attention.- 8. Meditation and Trance.- 9. Meditation and Brain-Wave Biofeedback.- 10. The Psychophysiological Principle.- 11. Meditation and the Psychophysiological Model.- References.- 14 Toward a Psychobiology of Transcendence: God in the Brain.- 1. An Argument for Implicit Knowledge in the Brain Sciences.- 2. The Pharmacological Bridge and the Modulation of Arousal and Fear.- 3. The Pharmacological Bridge and the Modulation of Rage.- 4. Neurobiological Transcendence: High-Dose Amphetamine, Cocaine, and the Hallucinogens.- 5. Neurobiological Antagonism of Amphetamine, Cocaine, the Hallucinogens, and Naturally Occurring Transient Hypomanic States by Lithium’s Effect on Serotonin Biosynthesis.- 6. Kindling of Temporal Lobe Limbic Structures: Raphe and Hippocampal Pyramidal Cells as Double Gates to Transcendence.- 7. Bipolar Affect Disorder, the Temporal Lobes, and Transcendent Consciousness.- 8. Syndromes of Temporal Lobe Disinhibition.- 9. The Activated Sleep Syndrome, the Drive-Arrest-Release Sequence in Biogenic Amine Neurons, and the Psychopharmacology of the Bipolar Affect Disorders.- 10. Religious Ecstasy and Conversion.- References.- 15 Prospects for the Scientific Observer of Perceptual Consciousness.- 1. Introduction.- 2. The Scientific Observer and the Problem of Mind and Matter: A Phenomenological Argument.- 3. The Scientific Observer and the Problem of Mind and Brain: An Abstract Argument.- 3.1. Introduction.- 3.2. Intentionality and the Abstract Observer.- 3.3. The Mind-Brain Problem.- 4. Conclusion.- References.

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Editore: Springer (1980)
ISBN 10: 030640138X ISBN 13: 9780306401381
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