Biomass Energies: Resources, Links, Constraints

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9780306413124: Biomass Energies: Resources, Links, Constraints

tions is not possible without first putting the problem into a wider con- text. Consequently, before proceeding with detailed critical topical cov- erage of individual biomass energy sources, uses, and effects, I will extend this preface with a few pages of rather personal reflections (I will use the same device in closing the book: after providing concise topical summaries in Chapter 8, I will conclude with some essayistic musings on renewable energetics, plants, people, and a scientist's responsibility). Interest in biomass energies is just a part of a broader global trend toward renewable energetics, a trend which has evolved speedily after the crude oil price escalation started in 1973. Yet one must be reminded that for the rich countries fossil fuels are, and for a long period shall remain, the foundation of an affluent civilization, while throughout the poor world the reliance of most people on biomass energies for everyday subsistence has brought many damaging environmental and social ef- fects; that the reality of sharp price rises for crude oil (actually not so sharp once adjusted for inflation) should not be misconstrued as an "energy crisis"; that the rise of renew abies and the claims made on their behalf by countless enthusiasts look so much better on paper than in reality; and that the potential of biomass energies, an essential ingre- dient of renewable scenarios, has been judged more with proselytizing zeal than with critical detachment.

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Contenuti:

One: Biomass.- 1.1. Radiation and Photosynthesis.- 1.1.1. Radiation Levels and Patterns.- 1.1.2. Photosynthesis.- 1.2. Primary Production and Biomass.- 1.2.1. Productivities of Ecosystems and Plants.- 1.2.2. Limits to Biomass Energy Supply.- 1.2.3. Biomass.- Two: Forests.- 2.1. Resources.- 2.1.1. Distribution and Productivity.- 2.1.1.1. Global Uncertainties.- 2.1.1.2. Areas and Standing Phytomass.- 2.1.1.3. Primary Productivities.- 2.1.2. Tropical Rain Forest.- 2.1.2.1. Structure and Function.- 2.1.2.2. Amazonia.- 2.1.2.3. Destruction of the Rain Forest.- 2.1.3. Temperate and Boreal Forests.- 2.1.3.1. Structure and Function.- 2.1.3.2. Deforestation, Harvests, and Residues.- 2.1.4. Forest Services and Goods.- 2.1.4.1. Forest Services.- 2.1.4.2. Wood Uses.- 2.1.4.3. Wood as a Fuel.- 2.2. Wood for Energy.- 2.2.1. Traditional Ways.- 2.2.1.1. Fuelwood in the Poor World.- 2.2.1.2. Charcoal.- 2.2.1.3. Some National Profiles and Estimates.- 2.2.1.4. Household Combustion.- 2.2.2. Modern Ways.- 2.2.2.1. Wood Energy in the Rich World.- 2.2.2.2. Wood Combustion.- 2.2.2.3. Conversions to Liquids and Gases.- Three: Trees for Energy.- 3.1. Silviculture.- 3.1.1. Trees for Energy.- 3.1.1.1. Trees for the Tropics.- 3.1.1.2. Trees for the Temperate Latitudes.- 3.1.2. Energy Silviculture.- 3.1.2.1. Fuelwood Lots.- 3.1.2.2. Energy Plantations.- 3.1.2.3. Whole-Tree Utilization.- 3.2. Requirements and Effects.- 3.2.1. Resource Requirements.- 3.2.1.1. Land, Water, and Nutrients.- 3.2.1.2. Energy Costs.- 3.2.2. Effects.- 3.2.2.1. Environmental Consequences.- Four: Crop Residues.- 4.1. Kinds and Quantities.- 4.1.1. Residue Multipliers and Yields.- 4.1.2. Cereal Straws and Corn Stover.- 4.2. Uses.- 4.2.1. Some National Figures.- 4.2.2. Feed, Bedding, and Composting.- 4.2.2.1. Straw as a Feed.- 4.2.2.2. Bedding and Composting.- 4.2.2.3. Mushroom Composting.- 4.2.3. Industrial and Household Uses.- 4.3. Environmental Problems and Benefits.- 4.3.1. Problems.- 4.3.1.1. Burning and Soil-Temperature Effects.- 4.3.1.2. Phytotoxicity and Nitrogen Immobilization.- 4.3.2. Benefits.- 4.3.2.1. Rainfall and Wind Erosion.- 4.3.2.2. Water Conservation and Organic Matter.- 4.3.2.3. Nutrient Recycling.- 4.4. Residues for Energy Conversion.- 4.4.1. Availability of Residues.- 4.4.1.1. National Profiles.- 4.4.1.2. General Considerations.- 4.4.2. Harvesting of Residues.- 4.4.2.1. Collecting the Residues.- 4.4.2.2. Transportation and Storage.- 4.4.2.3. Adding the Costs.- 4.4.3. Energy Conversions.- 4.4.3.1. Residues in Anaerobic Digestion.- 4.4.3.2. Combustion.- 4.5. Crop By-products.- 4.5.1. Combustion of Crop By-products.- 4.5.2. Fermentation of Crop By-products.- Five: Fuel Crops.- 5.1. Sugar Crops and Grain.- 5.1.1. Sugarcane.- 5.1.1.1. Ecology, Agronomy, Yields, and Distribution.- 5.1.1.2. Cane for Energy.- 5.1.1.3. The Brazilian Experience.- 5.1.2. Other Sugar Crops.- 5.1.3. Grain Crops.- 5.1.3.1. Fuel Alcohol.- 5.1.3.2. American Gasohol: Energy Cost.- 5.1.3.3. American Gasohol: Other Implications.- 5.2. Cassava.- 5.2.1. The Plant.- 5.2.1.1. Ecology and Agronomy.- 5.2.1.2. Yields, Distribution, and Uses.- 5.2.1.3. Energy Analysis.- 5.3. Other Crops.- 5.4. Implications and Consequences.- 5.4.1. Land and Water.- 5.4.1.1. Land Availability.- 5.4.1.2. Water Requirements.- 5.4.2. Energy Inputs.- 5.4.3. Food and Fuel.- Six: Aquatic Plants.- 6.1. Freshwater Plants.- 6.1.1. Macrophyta.- 6.1.1.1. Cultivation or Control?.- 6.1.1.2. Reeds.- 6.1.1.3. Water Hyacinth.- 6.1.2. Microalgae.- 6.1.2.1. Productivity and Cultivation.- 6.1.2.2. Sewage-fed Microalgae.- 6.2. Ocean Algae.- 6.2.1. Environmental Limitations.- 6.2.1.1. Productivity of the Open Ocean.- 6.2.2. Ocean Plantations.- 6.2.2.1. Kelp.- 6.2.2.2. Visions and Realities.- Seven: Animal and Human Wastes.- 7.1. Animal Wastes.- 7.1.1. Production and Uses.- 7.1.1.1. Production Rates and Output Estimates.- 7.1.1.2. Global and National Appraisal.- 7.1.1.3. Manure as a Fertilizer.- 7.1.1.4. Dung as a Fuel.- 7.2. Human Wastes.- 7.3. Anaerobic Fermentation.- 7.3.1. Processes, Products, and Requirements.- 7.3.1.1. Methanogenic Fermentation.- 7.3.1.2. Conversion Efficiencies.- 7.3.1.3. Biogas and Sludge.- 7.3.2. Practical Experience.- 7.3.2.1. Problems Encountered.- 7.3.2.2. Biogas in the United States.- 7.3.2.3. Biogas in India.- 7.4. Chinese Biogas Generation.- 7.4.1. A Success Story.- 7.4.1.1. Chinese Digesters.- 7.4.1.2. Operating Experience.- 7.4.1.3. Advantages.- 7.4.2. Taking a Second Look.- 7.4.2.1. All That Glitters.- 7.4.2.2. Appraising the Potential.- Eight: Summaries.- 8.1. On the Renewables in General.- 8.2. Chapter Overviews.- Nine: Reflections.- 9.1. On Myths and Uncertainties.- 9.1.1. Realities and Counterintuitive Consequences.- 9.1.2. Uncertainties.- 9.2. On Plants, Humans, and Homeostasis.- 9.2.1. Ecodisasters.- 9.2.2. Advantages and Usefulness.- References.

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Smil, Vaclav
Editore: Springer (1983)
ISBN 10: 0306413124 ISBN 13: 9780306413124
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Descrizione libro Springer, 1983. Hardcover. Condizione libro: New. book. Codice libro della libreria 306413124

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