This volume contains the papers, recommendations and conclusions of the Workshop on Grazing Research at Northern Latitudes held at Hvanneyri in Iceland, 5-10 August, 1985. As the name indicates, the Workshop was dedicated to the study of plant-animal interactions in ecosystems that have evolved under boreal conditions and are therefore typically fragile. The sensitivity of vast areas of northern grazing lands to the impact of grazing animals has in many areas led to irreversible plant and soil losses. However, northern areas of the world offer tremendous potential for production of red meat. One of the means of efficiently utilizing these vast rangelands is by grazing animals that are able to forage over extensive areas. This is an efficient way to convert primary production into much needed protein to help satisfy increasing requirements throughout the world. Because of increased development of the resources of the northern regions as well as the population increase in general, an increase in food production in these areas is necessary. Strengthening of agriculture in the north further helps to improve the standard of living. Since the traditional mid-latitude farming methods are not well suited to the northern conditions, it is important to develop and learn new production techniques that fit the short summers and long winters. A logical first step is to utilize the enormous grazing value of the northern areas.
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Opening statement.- Northern Ecosystems and Their Responses to Grazing.- Arctic Ecosystems: Their structure, function and herbivore carrying capacity.- Factors affecting production and stability of northern ecosystems.- The effect of grazing on stability and development of northern rangelands: A case study of Iceland.- Plant responses to defoliation: Hierarchical considerations.- Primary Productivity of Northern Rangelands.- Grassland surveys in North Norway.- Grazing effects on species balance and herbage production in indigenous plant communities.- Riparian responses to various grazing systems and to periodic ice floes.- Mountain pasture improvement by shrub clearing and fertilization.- Grazing in the North.- Reindeer grazing and associated land-use problems in Sweden.- Control of herd movements and distribution: The foundation of reindeer husbandry.- Conifer woodland as summer grazing for sheep.- Effect of some environmental factors and stocking density on the performance of sheep, cattle and horses grazing drained bog pastures.- Mixed grazing under Nordic conditions.- Pasture Utilization.- Dairy cattle pasture use in the extreme northern USSR.- Improvement of natural pasture utilization by sheep.- Manipulative grazing of plant communities.- The relative efficiency of rangeland use by ruminants and non-ruminant herbivores.- Plant defense and herbivore learning: Their consequences for livestock grazing system.- Factors Affecting Dry Matter Intake and Utilization Under Northern Conditions.- Grazing behaviour and herbage intake in cattle and sheep grazing indigenous hill plant communities.- Some effects of sward conditions on grazing behaviour and intake by sheep.- Foraging behaviour and diet selection.- Latitudinal variation in foraging strategies.- Effects of cold environments on domestic animals.- Nutrition and energetics of indigenous northern ungulates.- Internal parasites of livestock under Nordic conditions.- The fungal flora of pasture soil — A parameter in the ill-thrift syndrome of grazing sheep.- Stocking Rate Theory and Its Application.- Models as a tool in grazing management.- Stocking rate theory and grazing research: A modeling approach.- Grazing intensity and balancing animal numbers with forage resources: Sheep responses under subarctic conditions.- Importance and measurement of mixture effects in grazing systems.- Stocking rates for northern rangelands.- Conclusions and Recommendations.- Conclusions and recommendations.- Participants.
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Descrizione libro Springer, 1986. Hardcover. Condizione libro: New. 1. This item is printed on demand. Codice libro della libreria DADAX0306422808