Marc Leepson Flag: An American Biography

ISBN 13: 9780312323097

Flag: An American Biography

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9780312323097: Flag: An American Biography

The thirteen-stripe, fifty-star flag is as familiar an American icon as any that has existed in the nation's history. Yet the history of the flag, especially its origins, is cloaked in myth and misinformation. Flag: An American Biography rectifies that situation by presenting a lively, comprehensive, illuminating look at the history of the American flag from its beginnings to today.

Journalist and historian Marc Leepson uncovers scores of little-known, fascinating facts as he traces the evolution of the American flag from the colonial period to the twenty-first century. Flag sifts through the historical evidence to---among many other things---uncover the truth behind the Betsy Ross myth and to discover the true designer of the Stars and Stripes. It details the many colorful and influential Americans who shaped the history of the flag.

"Flag," as the novelist Nelson DeMille says in his preface, "is not a book with an agenda or a subjective point of view. It is an objective history of the American flag, well researched, well presented, easy to read and understand, and very informative and entertaining."

"Our love for the flag may be incomprehensible to others, but at least we now have a comprehensive guide to its unfolding."
---The Wall Street Journal

"The fascination of history is in its details, and the author of Flag: An American Biography knows how to find them and turn them into compelling reading.... This book brings out the irony, humor, myth, and behind-the-scenes happenings that make our flag's 228-year history so fascinating."
---The Saturday Evening Post

"Timely and insightful."
---The Dallas Morning News

Le informazioni nella sezione "Riassunto" possono far riferimento a edizioni diverse di questo titolo.

About the Author:

Marc Leepson has written for many publications, among them The New York Times, The Washington Post, and Smithsonian. He is the author of five books, including Saving Monticello, and lives in Middleburg, Virginia.

Excerpt. © Reprinted by permission. All rights reserved.:

Flag
CHAPTER ONE Antecedents  
 
The flag of today represents many centuries of development. Probably no other inanimate object has excited so great an influence over the actions of the human race. It has existed in some form among all peoples and from the earliest times. --Frederic J. Haskin, 1941  
 
 
 
HISTORY DOES NOT record the first time a human being attached pieces of cloth to a staff to use as a symbol. But wooden, metal, and cloth flaglike objects--statues, standards, banners, guidons, ensigns, pennons, and streamers--date from the ancient Egyptians who flew carved elephants and other symbols mounted on poles on boats and perhaps in front of their temples more than five thousand years ago. Other early prehistoric cultures also placed carvings or animal skins atop poles, sometimes accompanied by streamers or feathers. Among the oldest is an ancient Persian metal flagpole that had a metal eagle perched at its top. There also are recorded uses of flag predecessors--nearly always as communications or identification devices on the field of battle or to signify religious affiliations--among the Assyrians, Phoenicians, Saracens, Indians, Aztecs, and Mongolians. It is believed that the ancient Chinese first used cloth banners in the second century BC. The founder of the Chou dynasty (ca. 1027 BC), for example, is thought to have displayed a white flag to announce his presence. The main use of flags by the Chinese, though, was as a military communications device. "Because they could not hear each other, they made gongs and drums. Because they could not see each other they made pennants andflags," the ancient Chinese military general and philosopher Sun Tzu wrote in his classic The Art of War. "Gongs, drums, pennants and flags are the means to unify the men's ears and eyes." That was the case in China in the fourth century BC, according to Sun Pin, the military strategist and Sun Tzu descendant. "Commands should be carried out by using various colored banners," he advised. "Affix pennants to the chariots to distinguish grade and status. Differentiate among troops that can easily be mistaken for each other by using banners and standards." The ancient Roman legions carried banners called vexilla. These were small square ensigns, most often red in color, that were attached to crossbars at the end of lances. They often were adorned with animal figures, such as horses, eagles, wolves, or boars. Flags in ancient India typically were carried on chariots and elephants. They were usually red or green triangularly shaped banners that had figures embroidered upon them and were surrounded by gold fringe. The Vikings flew several types of flags, primarily on their famed sailing ships in the tenth and eleventh centuries AD. The most common was the Raven flag, in the shape of a triangle with two straight sides and a curved side. Historians believe that that emblem flew from the masts of Danish Viking ships and probably from the Norwegian Viking ships that landed in Newfoundland a thousand years ago. If so, the Viking Raven banner has the distinction of being the first flag to fly in North America. The idea of flags as symbols of the rulers of nation states began to evolve in Europe in the Middle Ages and the Renaissance. One of the banners that Christopher Columbus displayed when he reached the West Indies in 1492, for example, bore the Spanish royal standard: two lions and two castles representing the arms of Castile and Leon. Columbus also carried a special white expeditionary flag with a green cross. It consisted of the letters F and Y for Ferdinand (Fernando) and Isabella (Ysabel), each of which was topped by a crown. The English flag of the period, the red cross of St. George, the nation's patron saint, set on a white banner, dates from the Crusades and was considered a type of national emblem as early as 1277. It was not, however, considered a national flag as we know the concept today. The St. George's Cross rather was a royal banner--the symbol of the king's authority. It was flown on English ships and emblazoned on soldiers' shields. English ships also flew several types of rank-identifying pennants called ensigns, including the all-red, all-white and all-blue English naval ensigns. The word ensign itself derives from the British military rank of the samename; the "ensign" was the officer in charge of carrying the colors into battle. Historical evidence about the use of flags in the fifteenth, sixteenth, and seventeenth centuries is scant and sketchy. Because flags did not have anything close to the meaning they took on as symbols of nations beginning in the late eighteenth century, primary documents rarely contain descriptions of flags. Much of our knowledge about flags during those centuries, therefore, is based on fragmentary evidence and historic supposition. Historians believe that the first St. George's Cross to make its way to North America was brought by the Italian navigator and explorer Giovanni Caboto (known by his adopted English name, John Cabot), who sailed under the aegis of King Henry VII. The best historical evidence indicates that Cabot's small ship, the Matthew, reached Newfoundland in May 1497. When Cabot took possession of the land for England, he unfurled the St. George's Cross along with the Venetian flag of St. Mark. The first explorers from the other nations who came to North America also sailed under various types of banners and ensigns, most often representing their countries' monarchs. That included the blue royal French flag adorned with three fleurs-de-lis likely carried by Giovanni da Verrazzano, the Italian-born navigator and explorer who sailed under the French king Francis I (François). Verrazzano made landfall off present-day Cape Fear, North Carolina, in March 1524 and sailed on to what is now New York harbor and New England. Jacques Cartier, who explored the Saint Lawrence River for Francis I in 1534, also is believed to have brought his monarch's banner to these shores. Several types of French merchant flags--typically a white cross on a blue field with the royal arms at its center--were flown by the other pioneering French navigators who came to explore the New World: Samuel de Champlain in 1604; René-Robert Cavelier, Sieur de La Salle, and Jacques Marquette in 1666; and Louis Joliet in 1669. The English navigator and explorer Henry Hudson, sailing for the Dutch, took his ship, the Half Moon, into what is now New York harbor on September 3, 1609. Hudson did so most likely flying the orange, white, and blue horizontally striped flag of the Dutch United East India Company. Hudson also probably carried the Amsterdam Chamber flag, a red, white, and black horizontal tricolor affair. Both flags also contained initials in the center white stripe. The British Union Jack was created by King James I three years after he succeeded Queen Elizabeth I. James came to England to take the throne in 1603 after serving as James VI of Scotland, where the monarch's flagsince the time of the Crusades had been the St. Andrew's Cross, a diagonal white cross on a blue background. On April 12, 1606, James decreed that all English and Scottish ships should fly the new red, white, and blue union flag on their main masts. That flag was known as the Union Jack and also as the "king's colors." It consisted of an amalgam of the crosses and colors of St. George and St. Andrew. The ships were directed also to fly either the banner of St. George or of St. Andrew on their foremasts. It is believed that the Mayflower flew the red cross of St. George when it landed at Plymouth Rock on December 21, 1620, and it is possible that the ship also displayed the Union Jack. And it also is likely that one or both of those flags was flown by the members of the Virginia Company whose three ships--the Susan Constant, Godspeed, and Discovery--had landed on Jamestown Island in Virginia, on May 14, 1607, and began the first permanent British settlement in North America. There is concrete evidence that the Union Jack flew in the Massachusetts Bay Colony as early as 1634. Court records show that John Endicott, a local government official who had previously served as governor, that year ordered the cross cut out of a Union Jack. This was not a protest against British rule however. Endicott, acting probably at the behest of the nonconformist pastor Roger Williams (who later founded the colony of Rhode Island), did so to spotlight his Puritan belief that the cross was an idolatrous and pagan symbol. Endicott was tried in a local court for the offense and censured. The official Union Jack changed several times during the often-chaotic seventeenth century when England underwent two revolutions and a civil war. In 1707, when the turbulence ended under Queen Anne, the new Parliament of the United Kingdom of England, Scotland, and Wales officially adopted James I's Union Jack. "The ensigns armorial of our kingdom of Great Britain," Parliament decreed on January 16, 1707, shall be "the crosses of St. George and St. Andrew conjoined to be used on all flags, banners, standards, and ensigns both at sea and land." This flag, which was used exclusively on ships and on government buildings and military fortifications, came to be known as the "Union Flag."  
 
English colonial governors and local military commanders in America, most often small militia companies, began designing and displaying their own flags not long after the establishment of the first settlements in Jamestown in 1607 and in Plymouth in 1620. Nearly all of the colors and symbols usedin the earliest colonial flags were borrowed from the Union Jack and the various types of flags carried by British infantry units. Not all were red, white, and blue, however, and not all used crosses. That is the case with one of the oldest flags of colonial America that still exists, the banner of the English troops based in the counties of Essex, Suffolk, and Middlesex, Massachusetts, known as the Bedford flag. Dating from about 1705, the Bedford flag was crimson in color and featured an arm reaching through a cloud, holding a sword. The arm, cloud, and sword were silver, gold, and black. The colors of Capt. Thomas Noyes's company of troops in 1684 in Newbury, Massachusetts, consisted of a solid green field. The upper left-hand corner (known most often as the canton or the union) contained a red cross on a white background. Many other colonial flags of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries contained a canton. That includes the Massachusetts Red Ensign, a red flag with a plain white canton, which flew from about 1636-1686. That flag, it is believed, was the first flown in America that contained the canton-and-field design combination. The Saybrook, Connecticut, military company flag in 1675 was red with a white cross in the canton, augmented with a blue ball, most likely in a red field representing a bullet. The Newbury, Massachusetts, militia flag, as noted above, was green with a red cross in its white canton. The flag with the canton that most resembled what would become the first American flag, though, was not directly associated with the British colonial government. It was the flag of the East India Company, which was formed on December 31, 1600, by Queen Elizabeth I following the 1588 defeat of the Spanish Armada. The East India Company was designed to be the official English entrant into the lucrative spice trade in East and South-east Asia and India. But the company soon became much more than a commercial venture. It expanded into other commodities, including cotton and silk, and into other areas of the globe, including the Persian Gulf. In addition to its monopoly on trade in the East, the East India Company was given the authority to assume military and political power in the countries where it established itself. The first reference to an East India Company flag was in 1616 when Japanese authorities complained about the cross on a flag flying from a company vessel. That cross likely was the St. George's Cross. Evidence indicates that in 1670 and in the 1680s the company's ships flew a flag with red and white horizontal stripes and the red St. George's Cross in a white canton. A book published in 1701 shows the East India Company flag withseven red and white horizontal stripes and the red cross of St. George in a white canton. Sometime after 1707, when the Union Jack was created, the company substituted it in the canton for the St. George's Cross. By 1732, the flag's number of stripes had grown from seven to thirteen.  
 
By that time many in the thirteen American colonies were chafing under the heavy-handed British rule. As sentiment against King George grew and colonists banded together to protest against colonial rule, they adopted a variety of mostly anti-British flags as emblems of their rebelliousness. These flags featured three main images: the snake, variations on the theme of the word "liberty," and the pine tree. The idea for the "Don't Tread on Me" coiled snake flag came from the pen of Benjamin Franklin. In 1751 in his Pennsylvania Gazette Franklin wrote satirically that Americans should send rattlesnakes to England to thank the British for sending convicts to these shores. On May 9, 1754, Franklin again used the snake in his newspaper, this time to induce the colonies to unite during the French and Indian War (1754-63), during which the English and French battled for control of colonial North America. Franklin, in what is believed to be the first political cartoon to appear in an American newspaper, drew a cartoon depicting a snake cut into eight sections, representing the colonies in a shape suggesting the Atlantic coast with New England as the head and South Carolina as the tail. The cartoon's caption read: "Join, or Die." In the decades that followed, as discontent with British colonial rule intensified, Franklin's snake image became an expression of revolution. Christopher Gadsden, a patriotic South Carolinian who was a colonel in the Continental army, likely designed one of the first snake flags while serving in 1775 as a member of the Marine Committee of the Continental Congress. Gadsden appointed Esek Hopkins of Rhode Island to lead the first Continental Navy fleet in December of 1775. Hopkins, the first commodore of the U.S. Navy, took command of his five-ship fleet with a personal flag, which Gadsden likely had designed and given to him. That flag had a yellow field with a rattlesnake coiled in the middle and the words "Don't Tread on Me!" underneath. Aside from what became known as "the Gadsden flag," the rattlesnake appeared on many other American colonial banners, including several flown by military units during the Revolutionary War. A flag used by the minutemen of Culpeper County, Virginia, for example, included the rattlesnake,the "Don't Tread on Me" motto, and the famous words of Virginia's Patrick Henry, "Liberty or Death." Another similar banner was the 1775 flag of Col. John Proctor's Independent Battalion in Westmoreland County, Pennsylvania. That flag (more than six feet long and nearly six feet wide) consisted of a coiled rattlesnake and Gadsden's words painted directly on top of a solid red field with the British Union Jack in the canton. The snake's menacing tongue is pointed at the symbol of the British crown. Above the snake are the letters "J.P." and "I.B.W.C.P," which stand for "John Proctor, Independent Battalion, Westmoreland County, Pennsylvania." The flag...

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Descrizione libro St. Martin s Griffin, United States, 2006. Paperback. Condizione libro: New. Reprint. Language: English . Brand New Book ***** Print on Demand *****. The thirteen-stripe, fifty-star flag is as familiar an American icon as any that has existed in the nation s history. Yet the history of the flag, especially its origins, is cloaked in myth and misinformation. Flag: An American Biography rectifies that situation by presenting a lively, comprehensive, illuminating look at the history of the American flag from its beginnings to today. Journalist and historian Marc Leepson uncovers scores of little-known, fascinating facts as he traces the evolution of the American flag from the colonial period to the twenty-first century. Flag sifts through the historical evidence to---among many other things---uncover the truth behind the Betsy Ross myth and to discover the true designer of the Stars and Stripes. It details the many colorful and influential Americans who shaped the history of the flag. Flag, as the novelist Nelson DeMille says in his preface, is not a book with an agenda or a subjective point of view. It is an objective history of the American flag, well researched, well presented, easy to read and understand, and very informative and entertaining. Our love for the flag may be incomprehensible to others, but at least we now have a comprehensive guide to its unfolding. ---The Wall Street Journal The fascination of history is in its details, and the author of Flag: An American Biography knows how to find them and turn them into compelling reading. This book brings out the irony, humor, myth, and behind-the-scenes happenings that make our flag s 228-year history so fascinating. ---The Saturday Evening Post Timely and insightful. ---The Dallas Morning News. Codice libro della libreria APC9780312323097

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Descrizione libro St. Martin s Griffin, United States, 2006. Paperback. Condizione libro: New. Reprint. Language: English . Brand New Book ***** Print on Demand *****.The thirteen-stripe, fifty-star flag is as familiar an American icon as any that has existed in the nation s history. Yet the history of the flag, especially its origins, is cloaked in myth and misinformation. Flag: An American Biography rectifies that situation by presenting a lively, comprehensive, illuminating look at the history of the American flag from its beginnings to today. Journalist and historian Marc Leepson uncovers scores of little-known, fascinating facts as he traces the evolution of the American flag from the colonial period to the twenty-first century. Flag sifts through the historical evidence to---among many other things---uncover the truth behind the Betsy Ross myth and to discover the true designer of the Stars and Stripes. It details the many colorful and influential Americans who shaped the history of the flag. Flag, as the novelist Nelson DeMille says in his preface, is not a book with an agenda or a subjective point of view. It is an objective history of the American flag, well researched, well presented, easy to read and understand, and very informative and entertaining. Our love for the flag may be incomprehensible to others, but at least we now have a comprehensive guide to its unfolding. ---The Wall Street Journal The fascination of history is in its details, and the author of Flag: An American Biography knows how to find them and turn them into compelling reading. This book brings out the irony, humor, myth, and behind-the-scenes happenings that make our flag s 228-year history so fascinating. ---The Saturday Evening Post Timely and insightful. ---The Dallas Morning News. Codice libro della libreria APC9780312323097

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Descrizione libro St. Martin s Griffin, United States, 2006. Paperback. Condizione libro: New. Reprint. Language: English . This book usually ship within 10-15 business days and we will endeavor to dispatch orders quicker than this where possible. Brand New Book. The thirteen-stripe, fifty-star flag is as familiar an American icon as any that has existed in the nation s history. Yet the history of the flag, especially its origins, is cloaked in myth and misinformation. Flag: An American Biography rectifies that situation by presenting a lively, comprehensive, illuminating look at the history of the American flag from its beginnings to today. Journalist and historian Marc Leepson uncovers scores of little-known, fascinating facts as he traces the evolution of the American flag from the colonial period to the twenty-first century. Flag sifts through the historical evidence to---among many other things---uncover the truth behind the Betsy Ross myth and to discover the true designer of the Stars and Stripes. It details the many colorful and influential Americans who shaped the history of the flag. Flag, as the novelist Nelson DeMille says in his preface, is not a book with an agenda or a subjective point of view. It is an objective history of the American flag, well researched, well presented, easy to read and understand, and very informative and entertaining. Our love for the flag may be incomprehensible to others, but at least we now have a comprehensive guide to its unfolding. ---The Wall Street Journal The fascination of history is in its details, and the author of Flag: An American Biography knows how to find them and turn them into compelling reading. This book brings out the irony, humor, myth, and behind-the-scenes happenings that make our flag s 228-year history so fascinating. ---The Saturday Evening Post Timely and insightful. ---The Dallas Morning News. Codice libro della libreria BZE9780312323097

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Descrizione libro St. Martin's Griffin. Paperback. Condizione libro: New. Paperback. 352 pages. Dimensions: 8.9in. x 6.1in. x 1.1in.The thirteen-stripe, fifty-star flag is as familiar an American icon as any that has existed in the nations history. Yet the history of the flag, especially its origins, is cloaked in myth and misinformation. Flag: An American Biography rectifies that situation by presenting a lively, comprehensive, illuminating look at the history of the American flag from its beginnings to today. Journalist and historian Marc Leepson uncovers scores of little-known, fascinating facts as he traces the evolution of the American flag from the colonial period to the twenty-first century. Flag sifts through the historical evidence to---among many other things---uncover the truth behind the Betsy Ross myth and to discover the true designer of the Stars and Stripes. It details the many colorful and influential Americans who shaped the history of the flag. Flag, as the novelist Nelson DeMille says in his preface, is not a book with an agenda or a subjective point of view. It is an objective history of the American flag, well researched, well presented, easy to read and understand, and very informative and entertaining. Our love for the flag may be incomprehensible to others, but at least we now have a comprehensive guide to its unfolding. ---The Wall Street JournalThe fascination of history is in its details, and the author of Flag: An American Biography knows how to find them and turn them into compelling reading. . . . This book brings out the irony, humor, myth, and behind-the-scenes happenings that make our flags 228-year history so fascinating. ---The Saturday Evening PostTimely and insightful. ---The Dallas Morning News This item ships from multiple locations. Your book may arrive from Roseburg,OR, La Vergne,TN. Paperback. Codice libro della libreria 9780312323097

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