Ancient Science Through the Golden Age of Greece

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9780486274959: Ancient Science Through the Golden Age of Greece

More than a history of Greek science, this fascinating book by an eminent science historian also provides a lucid account of ancient and early Greek cultures. Remarkably readable, thoroughly documented, and well illustrated, it covers problems of mathematics, astronomy, physics, and biology. "Magnificent." — Ashley Montagu, Saturday Review.

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PART ONE ORIENTAL AND GREEK ORIGINS I THE DAWN OF SCIENCE EARLY TECHNICAL PROBLEMS PREHISTORIC TRAVEL AND TRADE PREHISTORIC MEDICINE PREHISTORIC MATHEMATICS PREHISTORIC ASTRONOMY PURE SCIENCES DIFFUSION AND CONVERGENCE II EGYPT THE INVENTION OF WRITING THE INVENTION OF PAPYRUS ASTRONOMY ARCHITECTURE AND ENGINEERING MATHEMATICS TECHNOLOGY METALLURGY AND MINING "EGYPTIAN "SCIENCE" ART AND LITERATURE THE DAWN OF CONSCIENCE III MESOPOTAMIA GEOGRAPHIC AND HISTORICAL BACKGROUND INVENTION OF WRITING ARCHIVES AND SCHOOLS THE BIRTH OF PHILOLOGY BABYLONIAN SCIENCE MATHEMATICS ASTRONOMY TECHNOLOGY GEOGRAPHY NATURAL HISTORY THE CODE OF HAMMURABI MEDICINE HUMANITIES IV DARK INTERLUDE THE AEGEAN AREA THE AEGEAN CULTURE THE EARLY GREEK AND PHOENICIAN COLONIES. INVENTION OF THE ALPHABET THE CONTINUITY OF ORIENTAL INFLUENCES MATHEMATICAL TRADITIONS: Egyptian arithmetic Minoan arithmetic Egyptian geometry Babylonian mathematics ASTRONOMIC TRADITIONS BIOLOGIC AND MEDICAL TRADITIONS TECHNICAL TRADITIONS MYTHOLOGY THE DARKEST HOUR BEFORE THE DAWN V THE DAWN OF GREEK CULTURE. HOMER AND HESIOD THE GREEK MIRACLE THE Iliad MINSTRELS AND RHAPSODISTS HOMER? MORE ABOUT THE Iliad THE Odyssey. HOMER II EARLY HOMERIC TRADITIONS WHAT DID HOMER TEACH? GEOGRAPHY MEDICINE OTHER ARTS AND CRAFTS "HOMER, THE FIRST EDUCATOR OF THE WESTERN WORLD" FÉNELON LEGENDS WOLF AND SCHLIEMANN HESIOD Works and days Descent of the gods HESIOD II HESIODIC STYLE AND TRADITION BIBLIOGRAPHIC NOTES: Homer Hesiod VI ASSYRIAN INTERMEZZO VII IONIAN SCIENCE IN THE SIXTH CENTURY THE ASIATIC CRADLE OF GREEK SCIENCE "ASIA, THE HOME OF PROPHETS" MILETOS THE SEVEN WISE MEN THALES OF MILETOS ANAXIMANDROS OF MILETOS ANAXIMENES OF MILETOS CLEOSTRATOS OF TENEDOS XENOPHANES OF COLOPHON EGYPTIAN INTERLUDE "NECHO, KING OF EGYPT " "HECATAIOS OF MILETOS, THE FATHER OF GEOGRAPHY" GREEK TECHNICIANS OF THE SIXTH CENTURY CADMOS OF MILETOS THE RELIGIOUS BACKGROUND AND THE SUPERSTITIOUS UNDERGROUND BIBLIOGRAPHY VIII PYTHAGORAS WHO WAS PYTHAGORAS? THE PYTHAGOREAN BROTHERHOOD AND THE EARLY PYTHAGOREAN DOCTRINES ARITHMETIC GEOMETRY ASTRONOMY MUSIC AND ARITHMETIC MEDICINE ALCMAION AND DEMOCEDES NUMBERS AND WISDOM THE PURSUIT OF KNOWLEDGE IS THE GREATEST PURIFICATION PART TWO THE FIFTH CENTURY IX GREECE AGAINST PERSIA. THE GLORY OF ATHENS THE PERSIAN WARS FIFTY YEARS OF RELATIVE PEACE LYRIC POETRY THE ARTS TRAGEDY COMEDY THE FIFTH CENTURY ITSELF A TRAGEDY THE DANGER OF COMPARING THE PAST WITH THE PRESENT X PHILOSOPHY AND SCIENCE TO THE DEATH OF SOCRATES HERACLEITOS OF EPHESOS ANAXAGORAS OF CLAZOMENAE THE ELEACTIC SCHOOL. PARMENIDES AND ZENON OF ELEA MELISSOS OF SAMOS EMPEDOCLES OF AGRIGENTUM THE ATOMISTS LEUCIPPOS AND DEMOCRITOS THE SOPHISTS "PROTAGORAS OF ABDERA, GORGIAS OF LEONTINI, AND ANTIPHON OF RHAMNOS" Protagoras of Abdera Gorgias of Leontini Antiphon of Rhamnos SOCRATES OF ATHENS THE BOOK OF JOB XI "MATHEMATICS, ASTRONOMY, AND TECHNOLOGY IN THE FIFTH CENTURY" MATHEMATICS ZENON OF ELEA DEMOCRITOS OF ABDERA HIPPOCRATES OF CHIOS OINOPIDES OF CHIOS HIPPIAS OF ELIS THE ODOROS OF CYRENE ANTIPHON THE SOPHIST BRYSON OF HERACLEA ASTRONOMY PARMENIDES OF ELEA PHILOLAOS OF CROTON HICETAS OF SYRACUSE ECPHANTOS OF SYRACUSE THE ASTRONOMIC VIEWS OF LEUCIPPOS AND DEMOCRITOS OINOPIDES OF CHIOS METON AND EUCTEMON TECHNOLOGY AND ENGINEERING ARTACHAIES THE PERSIAN AGATHARCHOS OF SAMOS HIPPODAMOS OF MILETOS THE SILVER MINES OF LAURION XII GEOGRAPHERS AND HISTORIANS OF THE FIFTH CENTURY GEOGRAPHY SCYLAX OF CARYANDA SATASPES THE ACHAIMENIAN HANON OF CARTHAGE HIMILCON OF CARTHAGE "THE HISTORIANS: HERODOTOS, THUCYDIDES, AND CTESIAS" HERODOTOS OF HALICARNASSOS THUCYDIDES OF ATHENS: The plague of Athens HERODOTOS AND THUCYDIDES CTESIAS OF CNIDOS XIII "GREEK MEDICINE OF THE FIFTH CENTURY, CHIEFLY HIPPOCRATIC" FROM HOMER TO HIPPOCRATES THE SCHOOL OF CNIDOS THE SCHOOL OF COS HIPPOCRATES OF COS HIPPOCRATIC MEDICINE: 1. Anatomy and physiology 2. Prognosis versus diagnosis 3. What diseases did the Hippocratic physicians know? 4. Hygiene and therapeutics 5. Medical climatology 6. Scientific aspects of Hippocratism 7. Psychologic healing THE HIPPOCRATIC ACHIEVEMENTS THE ASCLEPIADAI XIV THE HIPPOCRATIC CORPUS COMPLETE OR PARTIAL GENUINENESS OF THE HIPPOCRATIC WRITINGS EARLY COMMENTARIES: Printed editions MAIN MEDICAL WRITINGS 1. "The sacred disease, De morbo sacro, Peri hieres nosu" 2. "Prognostic, Prognostica sive praenotiones, Prognosticon" 3. "Regimen in acute diseases, De di 29. "Percepts, Praecepta, Parangeliai" LETTERS 30. APOCHRYPHAL LETTERS "THE MEDIEVAL TRADITION OF HIPPOCRATES: Second half of the twelfth century, First half of the thirteenth century, Second half of the thirteenth century, First half of the fourteenth century, Second half of the fourteenth century" XV COAN ARCHAEOLOGY PART THREE THE FOURTH CENTURY XVI PLATO AND THE ACADEMY POLITICAL BACKGROUND SCOPAS AND PRAXITELES PLATO'S LIFE THE ACADEMY (387 B.C. TO A.D. 529) LATER HISTORY OF THE ACADEMY (348 B.C. TO A.D. 529) ORIENTAL INFLUENCES THE THEORY OF IDEAS PLATOS WRITINGS BIBLIOGRAPHICAL SUMMARY PLATO'S WORKS AND THEIR CHRONOLOGICAL ORDER POLITICS THE GREAT BETRAYAL PLATO'S POLITICAL PROBLEM LEADERSHIP POLITICS AND MATHEMATICS NEITHER FREEDOM NOR TRUTH IN THE REPUBLIC PLATO'S RELIGION PLATO'S LACK OF HUMANITY THE Timaios PLATONIC LOVE CONCLUSION A NOTE ON THE ANCIENT AND MEDIEVAL TRADITION OF THE Timaios XVII MATHEMATICS AND ASTRONOMY IN PLATO'S TIME MATHEMATICS THEAITETOS LEODAMOS "NEOCLEIDES, AND LEON" ARCHYTAS OF TARENTUM EUDOXUS OF CNIDOS ASTRONOMY KIDINNU "THE PRECURSORS OF SCIENTIFIC ASTRONOMY: PHILOLAOS, HICETAS, AND ECPHANTOS" "THE FOUNDER OF SCIENTIFIC ASTRONOMY, EUDOXOS OF CNIDOS, AND HIS THEORY OF HOMOCENTRIC SPHERES" THE ASTRONOMIC FANCIES OF PLATO AND PHILIP OF OPUS. THE INTRODUCTION OF SIDEREAL RELIGION INTO THE WESTERN WORLD THE Epinomis XVIII XENOPHON XENOPHON'S WRITINGS PLATO AND XENOPHON XENOPHON AS EDUCATOR FUNCTIONAL ARCHITECTURE XENOPHON'S VIEWS ON DIVINATION XENOPHON'S HUMOR XENOPHON'S INFLUENCE XIX ARISTOTLE AND ALEXANDER THE LYCEUM THE GROWTH OF MACEDONIAN POWER THE LIFE OF ARISTOTLE "THE LOST ARISTOTLE. HIS EARLY, PLATONIC WRITINGS" THE LIVING ARISTOTLE. HIS PERMANENT WRITINGS "EDITIONS, TRANSLATIONS, INDEXES" ALEXANDER THE GREAT AND THE MACEDONIAN EMPIRE THE LYCEUM ITS FOUNDATION AND EARLY HISTORY EARLY COMMENTATORS SOME ASPECTS OF ARISTOTLE'S PHILOSOPHY THE ORGANON XX "MATHEMATICS, ASTRONOMY, AND PHYSICS IN ARISTOTLES TIME" MATHEMATICS ARISTOTLE THE MATHEMATICIAN SPEUSIPPOS OF ATHENS XENOCRATES OF CHALCEDON MENAICHMOS DEINOSTRATOS THEUDIOS OF MAGNESIA EUDEMOS OF RHODES ARISTAIOS THE ELDER MATHEMATICS IN THE SECOND HALF OF THE FOURTH CENTURY ASTRONOMY HERACLEIDES OF PONTOS CALLIPOS OF CYZICOS ARISTOTLE THE ASTRONOMER AUTOLYCOS OF PITANE ASTRONOMY IN ARISTOTLE'S TIME PHYSICS PHYSICS IN THE EARLY LYCEUM GREEK MUSIC. ARISTOXENOS OF TARENTUM XXI THE NATURAL SCIENCES AND MEDICINE IN ARISTOTLE'S TIME GEOGRAPHY ARISTOTLE THE GEOGRAPHER PYTHEAS OF MASSILIA NEARCHOS THE CRETAN DICAIARCHOS OF MESSINA ZOÖLOGY AND BIOLOGY "ARISTOTLE, THE ZOÖLOGIST, THE BIOLOGIST: Comparative anatomy and physiology, Habits of animals, Embryology" BOTANY THE RHIZOTOMISTS ARISTOTLE THE BOTANIST THEOPHRASTOS OF ERESOS THE FATHER OF BOTANY GEOLOGY AND MINERALOGY EARLY KNOWLEDGE THEOPHRASTOS THE MINERALOGIST MEDICINE ARISTOTLE THE PHYSICIAN THE DOGMATIC SCHOOL. DIOCLES OF CARYSTOS MENON XXII ARISTOTELIAN HUMANITIES AND HISTORIOGRAPHY IN THE SECOND HALF OF THE FOURTH CENTURY B.C. ECOLOGY ETHICS POLITICS "HISTORIOGRAPHY: Ephoros of Cyme, Theopompos of Chios" HISTORIANS OF SCIENCE: Rhetoric Poetics CONCLUSION XXIII OTHER THEORIES OF LIFE AND OF KNOWLEDGE. THE GARDEN AND THE PORCH THE CYNICS THE SKEPTICS EUHEMERISM THE GARDEN OF EPICUROS EPICUROS OF SAMOS EPICUREAN PHYSICS AND PHILOSOPHY EPICUROS' STRUGGLE AGAINST CLERICALSM AND SUPERSTITION THE SCHOOL EPICROS' CHARACTER HIS DEATH THE STOA ZENON OF CITION STOIC SCIENCE AND PHILOSOPHY BRIEF HISTORY OF THE SCHOOL EPILOGUE XXIV THE END OF A CYCLE GENERAL BIBLIOGRAPHY INDEX

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Descrizione libro Dover Publications Inc., United States, 2011. Paperback. Condizione libro: New. Reprinted edition. 214 x 136 mm. Language: English . Brand New Book. There are few scholars or scientists today who write as beautifully or as interestingly as [Sarton] . . . [his] book is magnificent. Ashley Montagu, S aturday Review Although science did not begin in ancient Greece (millennia of work in Egypt, Mesopotamia, and other regions preceded Greek efforts) it is nevertheless true that methodic, rational investigation of the natural universe originated largely with early Hellenic thinkers. Thus, the major part of this book is of necessity devoted to Greece. Drawing wherever possible on original sources, Dr. Sarton, one of the world s foremost historians of science, paints a vivid and illuminating picture of mathematics, astronomy, physics, biology, medicine, and other sciences as they emerged from the mists of prehistory and ultimately flourished within the context of Greek society.The book is divided into three parts. Part One begins with the earliest evidence of prehistoric mathematics, astronomy, and other science. Dr. Sarton then describes the achievements of Egypt and Mesopotamia, the dawn of Greek culture and the remarkable flowering of Ionian science in the sixth century B.C. Thales of Miletos, Anaximandrox, and Xenophanes are among the important figures discussed. An entire chapter focuses on the influential doctrines of Pythagoras.Part Two opens with the glory of Athens in the fifth century B.C. and its magnificent achievements in poetry and the arts, philosophy, and science. Described in lucid detail are groundbreaking contributions of Heracleitos, Anaxagoras, Protagoras, Zenon of Elea, Parmenides, Democritos, and many others. Also included in this section are perceptive discussions of geographers and historians of the fifth century (Herodotos, Thucydides, and others) and Greek medicine of the fifth century (chiefly Hippocratic). Part Three focuses on the extraordinary Greek thinkers of the fourth century B.C.: Plato and the Academy, Aristotle, Xenophon and many others, including such important schools of thought as the cynics, stoics, skeptics, and epicureans. Major attention is given to mathematics, astronomy and physics, natural sciences and medicine, Aristotelian humanities, and historiography and other topics. Of great value to the general historian and an exciting, arresting story for the lay reader. The Yale Review. Codice libro della libreria AAC9780486274959

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Descrizione libro Dover Publications Inc., United States, 2011. Paperback. Condizione libro: New. Reprinted edition. 214 x 136 mm. Language: English . Brand New Book. There are few scholars or scientists today who write as beautifully or as interestingly as [Sarton] . . . [his] book is magnificent. Ashley Montagu, S aturday Review Although science did not begin in ancient Greece (millennia of work in Egypt, Mesopotamia, and other regions preceded Greek efforts) it is nevertheless true that methodic, rational investigation of the natural universe originated largely with early Hellenic thinkers. Thus, the major part of this book is of necessity devoted to Greece. Drawing wherever possible on original sources, Dr. Sarton, one of the world s foremost historians of science, paints a vivid and illuminating picture of mathematics, astronomy, physics, biology, medicine, and other sciences as they emerged from the mists of prehistory and ultimately flourished within the context of Greek society.The book is divided into three parts. Part One begins with the earliest evidence of prehistoric mathematics, astronomy, and other science. Dr. Sarton then describes the achievements of Egypt and Mesopotamia, the dawn of Greek culture and the remarkable flowering of Ionian science in the sixth century B.C. Thales of Miletos, Anaximandrox, and Xenophanes are among the important figures discussed. An entire chapter focuses on the influential doctrines of Pythagoras.Part Two opens with the glory of Athens in the fifth century B.C. and its magnificent achievements in poetry and the arts, philosophy, and science. Described in lucid detail are groundbreaking contributions of Heracleitos, Anaxagoras, Protagoras, Zenon of Elea, Parmenides, Democritos, and many others. Also included in this section are perceptive discussions of geographers and historians of the fifth century (Herodotos, Thucydides, and others) and Greek medicine of the fifth century (chiefly Hippocratic). Part Three focuses on the extraordinary Greek thinkers of the fourth century B.C.: Plato and the Academy, Aristotle, Xenophon and many others, including such important schools of thought as the cynics, stoics, skeptics, and epicureans. Major attention is given to mathematics, astronomy and physics, natural sciences and medicine, Aristotelian humanities, and historiography and other topics. Of great value to the general historian and an exciting, arresting story for the lay reader. The Yale Review. Codice libro della libreria AAC9780486274959

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Descrizione libro Dover Publications, 2011. Condizione libro: New. Num Pages: 688 pages, 101 illustrations. BIC Classification: 1QDAG; PDX. Category: (G) General (US: Trade). Dimension: 220 x 147 x 34. Weight in Grams: 702. . 2011. Paperback. . . . . . Codice libro della libreria V9780486274959

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