The Collected Papers of Albert Einstein: The Early Years, 1879-1902

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9780691084077: The Collected Papers of Albert Einstein: The Early Years, 1879-1902

Volume 1 presents important new material on the young Einstein. Over half the documents made available here were discovered by the editors, including a significant group of over fifty letters that Einstein exchanged with Mileva Maric, his fellow student and future wife. These letters, together with other previously unpublished documents, provide an entirely new view of Einstein's youth. The documents in the volume also foreshadow the emergence of his extraordinary creative power. In them is manifested his intense commitment to scientific work and his interest in certain themes that proved to be central to his thinking during the next decade. We can follow, for example, the beginnings of his preoccupation with the electrodynamics of moving bodies that was to lead to the development of this special theory of relativity. For the first time it can be seen how closely he followed such contemporary developments in physics as Planck's work on radiation theory and Drude's work on the electron theory of metals. In addition to all of Einstein's known correspondence and other writings from this period, the volume includes the relevant portions of all third-party letters and other contemporary documents that provide additional information about his secondary schooling at the Aargau Cantonal School; his four years at the Swiss Federal Plytechnical School, or the ETH; and his search for a job after graduation. Included in the volume are those sections of an unpublished biography by Einstein's sister, Maja Winteler-Einstein, which deal with his early years; his extensive notes on a physics course he took at the ETH; and previously unpublished photographs of the young Einstein and his teachers and friends. Documents in Volume 1 portray Einstein's experiences during the two stressful years after his graduation from the ETH in Zurich. Denied a position as an Assistant at the ETH, he lived a hand-to-mouth existence while he looked for a post at other universities; then he attempted to find a secondary-school post, and finally sought a nonacademic job. Tension with his parents over his plans to marry Mileva Maric is evident throughout this period. With the help of a friend, he finally found work at the Swiss Patent Office, the haven where he would spend the next seven years. Freed from his financial worries, he entered on one of the most productive periods of his life, as the next volume, Writings (1901-1910), will document.

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Book Description:

"The volume is attractive, the editing perceptive and informative without being intrusive; the translation, an entirely appropriate and insightful compromise between the literary and the literal." --International Journal of Theoretical Physics

Contenuti:

Publisher's Foreword xi
List of Texts xv
List of Illustrations xxi
INTRODUCTORY MARTERIAL
General Information xxvii
Editorial Method xxx
Introduction to Volume 1 xxxv
Acknowledgments xlii
List of Location Symbols xlv
List of Descriptive Symbols xlvii
"Albert Einstein--Betrag für sein Lebensbid" (Excerpt) by Maja Winteler-Einstein xlviii
Map 2
LIST OF TEXTS
1. Birth Certificate, 15 March 1879 1
2. Pauline Einstein to Fanny Einstein, 1 August 1886 3
3. Comment on the Proof of a Theorem, 1891-1895 3
4. Two Philosophical Comments, 1891-1895 4
Editorial Note: Einstein's First Scientific Essay 5
5. "On the Investigation of the State of the Ether in a 6
Magnetic Field," Summer? 1895
6. To Caesar Koch, Summer 1895 9
Editorial Note: ETH Entrance Examination and Aargau Kantonsschule 10
7. Albin Herzog to Gustav Maier, 25 September 1895 12
8. Entrance Report of the Gewerbeschule Aargau Kantonsschule, ca. 26 October 1895 13
9. Gustav Mier to Jost Winteler 26 October 1895 14
10. Aargau Kantonsschule Record, 26 October 1895 3 October 1896 15
11. Hermann Einstein to Jost Winteler, 29 October 1895 17
12. Minutes of the Teachers' Conference, Aargau Kantonsschule, 8 November 1895 18
13. Jost Winteler to Gustav Maier, 21 December 1895 18
14. Hermann Einstein to Jost Winteler, 30 December 1895 19
15. Pauline Einstein to the Winteler Family, 30 December 1895 19
16. Release from Württemberg Citizenship, 28 January 1896 20
17. Inspector's Report on a Music Examination, Aargau Kantonsschule, ca. 31 March 1896 21
18. To Marie Winteler, with a Postscript by Pauline Einstein, 21 April 1896 21
19. Final Grades, Aargau Kantonsschule, 5 September 1896 23
Editorial Note: Matura Examinations at the Gewerbeschule, Aargau Kantonsschule 23
20. To the Department of Education, Canton of Aargau, 7 September 1896 25
21. Matura Examination (A) German: "Synopsis of Goethe's Götz von Berlichingen," 18 September 1896 25
22. Matura Examination (B) French: "My Future Plans," 18 September 1896 28
23. Matura Examination (C) Geometry, 19 September 1896 29
24. Matura Examination (D) Physics: "Tangent Galvanometer and Galvanometer," 19 September 1896 32
25. Matura Examination (E) Natural History: "Evidence of the Earlier Glaciation of Our Country," 21 September 1896 35
26. Matura Examination (F) Algebra, 21 September 1896 39
27. Matura Examination (G) Chemistry, 21 September 1896 41
Editorial Note: The Swiss Federal Polytechnical School (ETH) 43
28. ETH Record and Grade Transcript, 5-10 October 1896 2 August 1900 45
29. From Marie Winteler, 4-25 November 1896 50
30. From Marie Winteler, 30 November 1896 52
31. Pauline Einstein to Marie Winteler, 13 December 1896 53
32. Pauline Einstein to Marie Winteler, 24 March 1897 54
33. Statement of a Fine, 23-28 April 1897 54
34. To Pauline Winteler, May? 1897 55
35. To Pauline Winteler, 7 June 1897 57
36. From Mileva Mari?, after 20 October 1897 58
Editorial Note: Einstein as a Student of Physics, and His Notes on H. F. Weber's Course 60
37. H. F. Weber's Lectures on Physics, ca. December 1897-ca. June 1898 63
38. To Maja Einstein, 1898 211
To Mileva Mari?, 2 January 1898 [envelope only] 211
39. To Mileva Mari?, 16 February 1898 211
40. To Mileva Mari?, 16 April-8 November 1898 213
41. To Mileva Mari?, after 16 April 1898 213
42. Jér&ocircum;me Franel to Hermann Bleuler, 21 October 1898 214
43. To Mileva Mari?, after 28 November 1898 215
44. To Maja Einstein, after February 1899 215
45. To Mileva Mari?, 13 or 20 March 1899 215
46. To Rosa Winteler, 29 April 1899 217
47. To Rosa Winteler, 18 May 1899 218
48. To Julia Niggli, 28 July 1899 218
49. Verse in the Album of Anna Schmid, August 1899 220
50. To Mileva Mari?, early August 1899 220
51. To Julia Niggli, 6? August 1899 221
Editorial Note: E~nstetin on the Electrodynamics of Moving Bodies 223
52. To Mileva Mari?, 10? August 1899 225
53. From Mileva Mari?, after 10 August-before 10 September 1899 228
54. To Mileva Mari?, 10 September 1899 229
55. To Julia Niggli, 11 September 1899 231
56. To Pauline Winteler, 11 September 1899 232
57. To Mileva Mari?, 28? September 1899 233
Editorial Note: Einstein on Thermal, Electrical, and Radiation Phenomena 235
58. To Mileva Mari?, 10 October 1899 237
Ediitorial Note: Swiss Citizenship 239
59. Municipal Certificate of Residence and Good Conduct, 18 October 1899 241
60. To the Swiss Federal Council, 19 October 1899 242
61. From Mileva Mari?, 1900? 242
62. To the Swiss Department of Foreign Affairs, 28 February 1900 243
63. Mileva Mari? to Helene Kaufler, 9 March 1900 243
64. Mileva Mari? to Helene Kaufler, 4 June-23 July 1900 244
65. To the Zurich City Council, 26 June 1900 245
66. Municipal Police Detective's Report, 4 July 1900 246
67. Adolf Hurwitz to Hermann Bleuler, 27 July 1900 247
68. To Mileva Mari?, 29? July 1900 248
69. To Mileva Mari?, 1 August 1900 249
70. To Mileva Mari?, 6 August 1900 251
71. To Mileva Mari?, 9? August 1900 252
72. To Mileva Mari?, 14? August 1900 254
73. To Mileva Mari?, 20 August 1900 255
74. To Mileva Mari?, 30 August or 6 September 1900 257
75. To Mileva Mari?, 13? September 1900 259
76. To Mileva Mari?, 19 September 1900 261
77. To Adolf Hurwitz, 23 September 1900 263
78. To Adolf Hurwitz, 26 September 1900 264
Editorial Note: Einstein on Molecular Forces 264
79. To Mileva Mari?, 3 October 1900 266
80. Mileva Mari? to Helene Kaufler, before 9 October 1900 268
81. To Helene Kaufler, 11 October 1900 268
82. Questionnaire for Municipal Citizenship Applicants, 11-26 October 1900 269
83. Mileva Mari? to Helene Savi?, with a Postscript by Einstein, 11 December 1900 270
"Conclusions Drawn from the Phenomena of Capillarity," 271
13 December 1900 [text in Vol. 2]
84. Minutes of the Municipal Naturalization Commission of Zurich, 14 December 1900 271
85. Mileva Mari? to Helene Savi?, 20 December 1900 272
86. To Helene Savi?, 20 December 1900 274
87. Mileva Mari? to Helene Savi?, with a Postscript by Einstein, 8 January-19 March 1901 274
88. Report of the Schweizerisches Informationsbureau, 30 January 1901 275
89. Dedication to Friedrich Mühlberg, ca. March 1901 276
90. To Otto Wiener, 9 March 1901 277
91. Military Service Book, 13 March 1901 277
92. To Wilhelm Ostwald, 19 March 1901 278
93. To Mileva Mari?, 23 March 1901 279
94. To Mileva Mari?, 27 March 1901 281
95. To Wilhelm Ostwald, 3 April 1901 284
96. To Mileva Mari?, 4 April 1901 284
97. To Mileva Mari?, 10 April 1901 286
98. To Heike Kamerlingh Onnes, 12 April 1901 288
99. Hermann Einstein to Wilhelm Ostwald, 13 April 1901 289
100. To Marcel Grossmann, 14 April 1901 290
101. To Mileva Mari?, 15 April 1901 291
102. To Mileva Mari?, 30 April 1901 293
103. From Mileva Mari?, 2 May 1901 295
104. To Alfred Stern, 3 May 1901 296
105. From Mileva Mari?, 3 May 1901 297
106. To Mileva Mari?, 9 May 1901 298
107. To Mileva Mari?, second half of May? 1901 300
108. From Mileva Mari?, second half of May? 1901 301
109. Mileva Mari? to Helene Savi?, second half of May? 1901 301
110. To Mileva Mari?, second half of May? 1901 303
111. To Mileva Mari?, 28? May 1901 304
112. To Mileva Mari?, 4? June 1901 306
113. To the Director's Office, Technikum Burgdorf, 3 July 1901 307
114. To Mileva Mari?, 7? July 1901 308
115. To Jost Winteler, 8 July 1901 309
116. From Mileva Mari?, ca. 8 July 1901 310
117. To the Department of Education, Canton of Bern, 13 July 1901 311
118. From the Department of Internal Affairs, Canton of Bern, 16 July 1901 312
119. To Mileva Mari?, 22? July 1901 312
120. From the Department of Internal Affairs, Canton of Bern, 31 July 1901 313
121. From Mileva Mari?, 31? July 1901 313
122. To Marcel Grossmann, 6? September 1901 315
123. From Mileva Mari?, early November 1901 316
124. From Mileva Mari?, 13 November 1901 317
125. Mileva Mari? to Helene Savi?, ca. 23 November mid-December 1901 319
126. To Mileva Mari?, 28 November 1901 320
127. To Mileva Mari?, 12 December 1901 322
128. To Mileva Mari?, 17 December 1901 325
129. To the Swiss Patent Office, 18 December 1901 327
130. To Mileva Mari?, 19 December 1901 328
131. To Mileva Mari?, 28 December 1901 329
132. Receipt for the Return of Doctoral Fees, 1 February 1902 331
133. To Conrad Habicht, 4 February 1902 331
134. To Mileva Mari?, 4 February 1902 332
135. Advertisement for Private Lessons, 5 February 1902 334
136. To Mileva Mari?, 8? February 1902 334
137. To Mileva Mari?, 17? February 1902 335
138. Pauline Einstein to Pauline Winteler, 20 February 1902 336
"On the Thermodynamic Theory of the Difference in Potentials between Metals and Fully Dissociated Solutions of Their Salts and On an Electrical Method for Investigating Molecular Forces," April 1902 [text in Vol. 2] 337
139. To Conrad Habicht, April? 1902 337
"Kinetic Theory of Thermal Equilibrium and of the Second Law of Thermodynamics," June 1902 [text in Vol. 2] 337
140. The Swiss Department of Justice to the Swiss Federal Council, 2 June 1902 338
141. From the Swiss Department of Justice, 19 June 1902 339
142. From the Swiss Patent Office, 19 June 1902 340
APPENDIXES
A. Munich Volkschule, Curriculum 341
B. Luitpold-Gymnasium, Curriculum 346
C. ETH Entrance Examination, Required Topics 356
D. Aagau Kantonsschule, Curriculum 359
E. ETH, Einstein's Curriculum 362
Chronology, March 1879-June 1902 370
Biographies 378
Literature Cited 390
Index 409

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