This book provides a straightforward guide to the use of ultrasound aimed for these industrial researchers. It contains a clear account of the nature, properties and uses of ultrasound in an accessible form, suitable for the non-specialist. The technical application of ultrasonic instruments is surveyed in sufficient detail to guide the user in choosing the appropriate sensor technology to solve a particular problem. It includes a list of commercial companies involved in ultrasonic technology. This important addition to the Sensors Series is easy to read, with illustrations which capture the essence of technical equipment while avoiding unnecessary detail.
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Introduction: What is ultrasound?; The areas of ultrasonic technology to be discussed; Definition of 'chemical and process plant'; Some parameters which can be determnined by ultrasonic sensors; Problem areas with ultrasonic sensors; The plan of the book; References. Part One: Ultrasound and its properties; Nature of ultrasound; General points; Continuous waves, pulsed waves, standing waves and other wave forms; Similarities and dissimilarities of ultrasound to light; Varieties of ultrasound; Mode conversion; Simple harmonic motion; Interference; Heterodyning and beats; Fourier analysis of waveforms (frequency spectrum); Acoustic intensity and pressure; Wavelenth and velocity of ultrasound; Attenuation of ultrasound; References. Ultrasonic 'Optics'; Huygens principle; Propogation of ultrasound through an infinite medium; Behaviour at interfaces: Acoustic impedan ce; Behaviour at interfaces: Beams at normal incidence; Behaviour at interfaces: Oblique incidence; Transmission through plates and across gaps; Diffraction; Ultrasonic mirrors and lenses; References. Generation and detection of ultrasound: Gen eral points; Characteristics of ultrasonic transducers; References. Piezoelectric Transducers: The piezolectric effect; General description of piezoelectric transducers; Piezoelectric materials; Criteria for assessing piezoelectric materials; The 'Reference Design' of a piezoelectric transducer; Modifications to the design of the element; PE transducers for use in air and other gases; Other special PE transducers; References; Firms. Other ultrasonic transducers: Magnetostrictive transducers; Capacitive (electrostatic) transducers; Electromagnetic transducers; Laser generation and detection; Emats; Spark transmitters; References; Firms. Electronics and signal processing: Introduction; Equivilent circuits of transducers; Energising transmitters; Phase locked loopes; Detecting the received signal; Oscilloscope displays; Determination of time intervals; Determination of frequency; Determination of phase angle or phase shift; Measuring amplitude; References; Firms. Part Two: Description of ultrasonic instruments: General: Outline of systematic description. Point level detectors: Definition; Transmission PLD's; Z Matching PLD's; Bulk wave Z matching PLD's; Guided wave Z matching NWA PLD's; Other Z matching PLD's; Referen ces; Firms. Sensors where V is determined: Introduction; Electronic techniques for determining V; Typical cells; Identification of liquids; Identification of gases; Determination of the concentration of a mixture; Determination of the concentration of a mixture; Determination of particle and droplet size; Saws for determination of concentration, pressure etc.; Determination of temperature; Detecting the position of a liquid/liquid interface; Introduction to the determination of flow velocity; References; Firms. Determination of flow velocity: Introduction; Determining flow velocity from ultrasonic velocity (transit time); Doppler flowmeters; Ultrasonic cross-correlation flowmeters; Ultrasonic vortex shedding flowmeters; Flow velocity determination from liquid levels; References; Firms. Sonar Techniques: Definition and principles of sonar; Correction for effects of temperature and changes in composition; Spurious and intermittent signals; Electronics and signal processing; Sonar sensors in liquids; Sonar sensors in gases; References. Firms. Attenuation, Scattering and Acoustic Impedance Techniques: Introduction; Attenuation techniques; Scattering techniques; Acoustic impedance techniques; References; Firms. Acoustic emission (AE) Techniques: Introduction; The detection of acoustic emission; Bursts of AE; Continuous AE; References; Firms. Appendices: Appendix A: The Factors which influence the velocity of ultrasound: Introduction; Liquids; Gases; Mixtures; The effect of temperature; References. Appendix B: The Mechanisms of Attentuation of Ultrasound: Introduction; General points; Gases; Liquids; Two phase fluid systems; Scattering; The effects of viscosity, thermal damping, etc.; References. Appendix C: Ultrasonic Waveguides: General points; Thick plates; Thin plates; Rods; Fluid waveguides; Generation and detection of surface waves; References. Appendix D: Piezoelectric Materials: General points; Crystal cuts; Subscripts and Superscripts; Criteria for assessing PE materials; Specific PE materials; Electroding techniques; References. Appendix E. Firms currently or recently involved with relevant ultrasonic technology. Appendix F. Bibliography. Index.
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Descrizione libro CRC Press, 1997. Hardcover. Condizione libro: New. book. Codice libro della libreria 0750303611