Dyslexia and Hyperlexia: Diagnosis and Management of Developmental Reading Disabilities

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9780792331551: Dyslexia and Hyperlexia: Diagnosis and Management of Developmental Reading Disabilities

Even though I had been studying reading problems in children for a number of years as a means of understanding cognitive processes, I became deeply committed to the study of developmental dyslexia after my encounter with S. H. , a dyslexic college student. Until then, dyslexia to me remained an interesting phenomenon but somewhat removed from the mainstream of my research interests. The facts that, in spite of his superior IQ, S. H. could read no better than a child in the fifth grade and misspelled even common words such as was and here, however, took me by surprise and made me appreciate the intriguing and challenging nature of developmental dyslexia. This led to a series of studies of college students with reading disability, a group that is relatively unexplored. The general plan of these investigations was to study a small number of disabled readers at any given time, rather intensively. Even though this approach limits the generalizability of the research findings, it lays bare some of the most interesting facts about dyslexia which are obscured in large-scale statistical studies. These studies have now extended well over a decade and are still continuing. As soon as these studies were started, it became obvious that not all reading-disabled college students are alike and that disabled readers could be classified into three broad categories: those with poor decod- ing skill, those with poor comprehension ability, and those with a combination of these two deficits.

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Contenuti:

1. READING DISABILITIES: THE PUZZLE AND THE HISTORY.- 1. Introducing the Puzzle.- 2. Developmental Dyslexia: History of Research.- 2.1 Classical Studies: The Medical Men and the Problem of Etiology.- 2.2 The Educators.- 2.2.1 The Problem of Terminology.- 2.2.2 The Problem of Methodology.- 2.3 Neuropsychology.- 2.3.1 Beginnings of a Compromise.- 2.3.2 Orton, the Pioneer.- 2.3.3 Recent Developments.- 2.3.3.1 Cerebral Hemisphere Processes and the “Imbalance Hypothesis”.- 2.3.3.2 Acquired or Traumatic Reading Disorders.- 2.3.3.3 Comparison of Acquired and Developmental Reading Disorders.- 3. The Current Scene: An Orchestrated Effort.- 3.1 The Biological Approach.- 3.2 The Neurological Approach.- 3.3 The Neuropsychological-Cognitive Approach.- The Educational Approach.- 4. Hyperlexia: History of Research.- 4.1 Awareness of the Presence of Extraordinary Decoding Skills in Some Young Children.- 4.2 Recognition That Some Children Can Decode Words Much Better Than They Can Comprehend.- 4.3 Emergence of the Concept of Hyperlexia.- 5. General Conclusions.- 2. THE READING PROCESS.- 1. Introduction.- 2. The Visual Encoding Stage.- 2.1 The Icon.- 2.2 Short-Term Visual Memory.- 3. The Word-Recognition Stage.- 3.1 Working-Memory.- 3.2 Models of Lexicon.- 3.2.1 The Feature Model of Lexicon.- 3.2.2 The Search Model of Lexicon.- 3.3.3 The Subset Model of Lexicon.- 3.3 Issues in Word Recognition.- 3.3.1 What is the Basic Unit in Word Recognition — The Letter or the Word Itself?.- 3.3.2 Must the Written Word Be Converted into Phonological Code to Be Recognized?.- 3.3.3 The Role of Phonology in Reading.- 3.3.3.1 Evidence from Experimental Psychology.- 3.3.3.2 Evidence from Neuropsychology.- 3.3.3.3 Evidence from Developmental Psychology.- 3.3.3.4 Evidence from Studies of Specific Reading Disability.- 3.3.4 Conclusions.- 4. Reading Comprehension Beyond the Word Level.- 4.1 Sentence-Level Comprehension.- 4.2 Text-Level Comprehension.- 4.3 Metacognition.- 4.3.1 Verbal Reports.- 4.3.2 On-line Processing Measures.- 4.3.3 Confidence Estimates.- 5 Components of Reading: Decoding and Comprehension.- 5.1 Studies of Componential Analysis.- 5.2 Reading Comprehension and Listening Comprehension.- 5.2.1 Experimental Studies.- 5.2.2 Review Studies.- 5.2.3 Implications.- Note.- 3. ETIOLOGIES OF DEVELOPMENTAL DYSLEXIA AND HYPERLEXIA.- 1. Introduction.- 2. Developmental Dyslexia.- 2.1 The Visual Encoding Stage.- 2.1.1 The Icon.- 2.1.2 Short-Term Visual Memory.- 2.1.3 Conclusions.- 2.2 Word-Recognition Stage.- 2.2.1 Working-Memory.- 2.2.1.1 Capacity.- 2.2.1.2 Strategies.- 2.2.1.3 Speed of Retrieval.- 2.2.1.4 Phonological Coding.- 2.2.2 Conclusions.- 2.3 Reading Comprehension Beyond Word Level.- 2.3.1 Syntactical Ability of the Dyslexic Reader.- 2.3.2 Semantic Ability of the Dyslexic Reader.- 2.3.3 Studies of Listening Comprehension.- 2.4 Etiology of Developmental Dyslexia.- 2.4.1 Phonological Deficit.- 2.4.2 The Phonological Deficit Hypothesis.- 3. Hyperlexia.- 3.1 Word-Recognition Stage.- 3.1.1 Word Decoding.- 3.1.2 Word Comprehension.- 3.2 Reading Comprehension Beyond Word Level.- 3.2.1 Sentence-Level Comprehension.- 3.2.2 Text-Level Comprehension.- 3.3 Etiology of Hyperlexia: Deficit in Assembling Comprehension.- Notes.- 4. DEVELOPMENTAL DYSLEXIA AND HYPERLEXIA: DELINEATION OF THE DISORDERS.- 1. Developmental Dyslexia.- 1.1 Overgeneralization of the Concept.- 1.2 Reading—Language Relationship.- 1.3 Dyslexia and Other Forms of Reading Disability: A Componential Differentiation.- 1.4 An Operational Definition.- 2. Hyperlexia.- 2.1 Overgeneralization of the Concept.- 2.2 Hyperlexia and Dyslexia: Differentiation of the Syndromes.- 2.3 An Operational Definition of Hyperlexia.- 3. A Model of Reading and Reading Disabilities.- 5. THE “SYNDROMES” OF DEVELOPMENTAL DYSLEXIA AND HYPERLEXIA.- 1. The Syndrome of Developmental Dyslexia.- 1.1 Invariant Symptoms.- 1.1.1 Slow Reading Speed.- 1.1.2 Errors in Oral Reading.- 1.1.3 Poor Spelling.- 1.1.4 Errors of Syntax in Written Language.- 1.1.5 Excessive Reliance on Context for Word Recognition.- 1.2 Variant Symptoms.- 1.2.1 Reversals in Writing.- 1.2.2 Neurological Soft Signs.- 1.3 Two Issues Regarding the Syndrome of Developmental Dyslexia.- 1.3.1 Is Dyslexia a Heterogeneous Disorder?.- 1.3.2 Is Dyslexia Orthography-Specific?.- 2. The Syndrome of Hyperlexia.- 2.1 Invariant Symptoms.- 2.1.1 Severely Deficient Comprehension.- 2.1.2 Developmentally Far Advanced Decoding Skill.- 2.1.3 Spontaneous Acquisition of Decoding Skill.- 2.2 Variant Symptoms.- 2.2.1 Autism.- 2.2.2 Neurological Impairment.- Note.- 6. DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS OF READING DISABILITIES.- 1. Introduction.- 2. Rationale of the Diagnostic Procedure.- 2.1 Components of Reading.- 2.2 Evaluation of Reading Components.- 3. Diagnostic Procedure: Grades 4 and Above.- 3.1 Diagnostic Evaluation.- 3.2 Quantitative Evaluation.- 3.3 Qualitative Evaluation.- 3.4 Application of the Diagnostic Procedure (Grades 4 and Above).- 4. Diagnostic Procedure: Grades 1 and 2.- 4.1 Diagnostic Evaluation.- 4.2 Qualitative Evaluation.- 4.3 Application of the Diagnostic Procedure.- 5. Identification of the Hyperlexic Child.- 7. TREATMENT AND MANAGEMENT OF READING DISABILITIES.- 1. Introduction.- 2. Treatment of Reading Disabilities.- 2.1 Determining Factors in Choosing the Method of Treatment.- 2.1.1 Nature of the Reading Disability.- 2.1.2 Severity of the Reading Problem.- 2.1.3 Interest and Motivation of the Reader.- 2.1.4 Outcome of Trial Teaching.- 2.2 Treatment of Reading Disability in Dyslexic Students.- 2.2.1 Improving Phonological Skills.- 2.2.2 Spelling as a Means of Improving Decoding Skills.- 2.2.3Using Computers to Improve Decoding Skills.- 2.3 Treatment of Reading Problems in Poor Compre- henders.- 2.3.1 Improving Word Knowledge and Vocabulary.- 2.3.2 Improving Sentence Comprehension.- 2.3.3 Improving Text Comprehension.- 2.3.4 Improving Metacognition Skills.- 2.3.5 Improving Comprehension Through Writing.- 3. Management of Reading Disabilities.- 3.1 Management of Dyslexia.- 3.1.1 Academic Advisement and Study Techniques.- 3.1.2 Student Advocacy.- 3.1.3 Counseling.- 3.2. Management of Hyperlexia.- Note.- REFERENCES.- APPENDIX I.- APPENDIX II.- AUTHOR INDEX.

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