Dr. Ganti has introduced Chemoton Theory to explain the origin of life. This first volume, "Theoretical Foundations of Fluid Machineries", is a discussion of the theoretical foundations of fluid automata. It introduces quantitative methods - cycle stoichiometry and stoichiokinetics - in order to describe fluid automata with the methods of algebra, as well as their construction, starting from elementary chemical reactions up to the complex, program-directed, proliferating fluid automata, the chemotons. The second volume of the book is the "Theory of Living Systems", the application of the theory of fluid automata on living systems. The volume proves, that chemotons possess the general properties of living systems and - at the same time - every living system has the same basic organisation as a chemoton. Volume Two develops on the basis of the chemoton theory, the processes of biogenesis and of the prebiotic evolution, up to the appearance of the enzymes and genes, i.e. up to the formation of prokaryote cells. "Chemoton Theory" outlines the development of a theoretical biology, based on exact quantitative considerations and the consequences of its application on biotechnology and on the artificial synthesis of living systems.
VI. About the World of Living in General.- What is Life?.- The ambiguity of the concept oflife.- Views concerning the essence oflife.- The standpoints of some outstanding philosophers.- The Most General Properties of Living Beings.- Empirical facts providing the basis for the theory.- Conclusions.- Life Criteria.- Alive, capable ofliving, dead, nonliving.- The levels of life.- Life criteria.- Chemotons as Living Systems.- Chemotons satisfy life criteria.- Chemotons are minimum systems of life.- VII. Chemical Evolution.- Setting of Objectives.- The Date of the Genesis of Life.- The Genesis of Earth.- The Primitive Atmosphere.- Chemical Evolution.- Energy source.- Initial compounds.- Low-molecular-weight products.- Abiotic formation of proteinoids.- Abiogenic formation of nucleic acids.- Formation of microscopic structures.- VIII. Biogenesis.- Models of Biogenesis.- Experimental models.- Qualitative theoretical models.- Quantitative theoretical models.- Metabolic Network of a Prebiotic Chemoton.- General aspects.- Autocatalytic subsystems.- Connective subsystems.- Additional pathways.- A qualitative.survey of the operation of the network.- Quantitative Description of Prebiotic Chemotons.- Strategy.- Membrane synthesis.- Template synthesis.- Combination of the two subsystems.- Synthesis of precursors.- Self-reproducing metabolic network.- Overall equation of the prebiotic chemoton.- IX. Prebiotic Evolution.- Beginnings of Prebiotic Evolution.- Conditions of biogenesis on Earth.- Spontaneous genesis of proliferating systems.- Spontaneous genesis of chemotons.- External conditions of early evolution.- The early evolution of chemotons.- Appearance of Enzyme Activity.- The problem of primitive catalysis.- Evolution of RNAs.- Development of enzyme RNAs.- The Origin of Coenzymes.- General considerations.- Coenzymes are the remnants of eRNAs.- The Origin of Genes and the Code.- The origin of genes.- The orig in of RNA polymerases.- The appearance of DNA.- The origin of code.- Summary.- X. Exobiological Outlook.- Introductory Remarks.- Possibility of the Existence ofNon-terrestrial Types of Life.- Non-carbon-based life.- Carbon-based life with a non-terrestrial type of metabolism.- Life of non-terrestrial origin witha terrestrial metabolism.- Exobiological Studies in the Solar System.- Dry celestial bodies.- Mars.- Galilean moons.- Giant planets.- XI. Outlines of a Quantitative Biology.- Some Genetic Considerations.- Self-(re)production without genetic subsystem.- Reproduction by a “technological recipe”.- Hereditary properties acquired by adaptation.- General structure of the genetic material.- Quantitative Treatment of a Prokaryotic Cell.- Possibilities and limitations.- Stoichiometry of the minimum model of prokaryotes.- The Stoichiometric Principles of Evolution.- Csányi’s general theory of evolution.- Stoichiometric principles of the evolution of prokaryotes.- Evolution to eukaryotes.- Evolution of eukaryotes.- Applications in Biotechnology.- Limits of the prospective development of biotechnology.- One-step chemical syntheses.- Chemical syntheses by reaction networks.- Synthesis of Living Systems.- The objective of synthesis.- Neobiogenesis.- Possibility of an exact proof.- References.
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