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Riassunto: Few people realize that the familiar HIV/AIDS global statistics are actually estimates. For example, UNAIDS estimated that the Republic of South Africa (RSA) had 140,000 HIV/AIDS deaths in 1997. However, after tabulating all deaths for 1997, the Republic of South Africa attributed only 6,635 deaths to HIV/AIDS.

Such discrepancies are rarely noted. The Republic of South Africa (RSA) stands as the exemplar of these discrepancies. It is reputed to have the world's largest AIDS epidemic with an estimated 5.6 million people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWH) in 2008.

Such PLWH estimates, as with the estimates of HIV/AIDS deaths, are highly questionable. HIV/AIDS in South Africa - The Facts and the Fiction clarifies the reasons behind these discrepancies by describing two common misunderstandings of HIV infection that contribute to poor mathematical modeling outcomes.

Unfortunately, the health authorities in the Republic of South Africa grant more validity to computer-generated estimates than to their own empirical death counts. HIV/AIDS in South Africa - The Facts and the Fiction discusses why these modeled estimates, and the HIV sero-seroprevalence surveys upon which they are based, are simply implausible.

Fully referenced, HIV/AIDS in South Africa - The Facts and the Fiction presents and compares raw numerical data on:

? the tabulated number of HIV/AIDS deaths in the RSA;

? the number of AIDS cases detected by RSA disease surveillance systems;

? UNAIDS/WHO estimates for AIDS deaths in the RSA; and

? UNAIDS/WHO estimates for the number of people living with HIV/AIDS in the RSA.

The total cumulative numbers of HIV/AIDS cases in the United States and the cumulative totals for the continent of Africa are also presented for purposes of comparison, and to place the African and RSA data within appropriate epidemiological context. Overall, these data span from 1981 to 2009.

Altogether, these data, plus additional information detailing the nature of HIV infection and heterosexual HIV transmission rates, explain why the hyperbolic mathematical estimates and HIV antibody test surveys - the primary sources of HIV/AIDS data in Africa - are simply implausible.

Contents: 118 pages, 20 tables, several side boxes, and 240 references.

Dall'autore: "In the Summer of 1985, when the United States had over 10,000 AIDS cases, the Republic of South Africa had 21 AIDS cases." ? Collectively, these empirical data reconfigure the statistical scenario upon which resource allocations and health care interventions are decided. These new data indicate that past and current UNAIDS estimates for HIV/AIDS deaths in the Republic of South Africa could be overestimated by two orders of magnitude.

WHO estimates for the AIDS cases in Africa are likely to be inflated in a similar fashion. For example, each year from 1993 to 2000, WHO estimates for AIDS in Africa were consistently 25 - 30 times of actual number of AIDS cases reported by all African countries collectively.

"In late 1996, when the United States had over 580,000 AIDS cases, the Republic of South Africa had a total of 13,000 AIDS cases. Two years later, UNAIDS would claim that 140,000 people in South Africa had died of AIDS in 1997 alone."

HIV/AIDS in South Africa - The Facts and the Fiction offers several rudimentary extrapolations of prevalence rates, incorporating the aforementioned data, and also offering alternative interpretations of the data set as determined by two independent analysts respected by the South African health authorities.

HIV/AIDS in South Africa - The Facts and the Fiction is the adjuvant companion book to HIV/AIDS - The Facts and the Fiction, and provides numerical substantiation to some of the assertions presented in HIV/AIDS - The Facts and the Fiction.

Fully referenced, these two books are based on a review of over 3000 scientific and medical journal articles. Together, they redefine global concepts for the prevalence and distribution of HIV infection, and have powerful implications for HIV/AIDS funding, research prerogatives, and global health care interventions.

For many readers, each page of these two books contains a revelation. For the student, the professional concerned about global health, or the curious reader who has never felt satisfied with the story of AIDS as currently told, HIV/AIDS - The Facts and the Fiction and HIV/AIDS in South Africa - The Facts and the Fiction are seminal works granting new comprehension.

Chris Jennings (Harvard, B.A., Biology 1976/77) excels at writing scientific books that fulfill the needs of professionals while rendering the science accessible to the average reader. His prior book, Understanding and Preventing AIDS: A Book for Everyone, was favorably reviewed by the New England Journal of Medicine ? adopted for staff education by Massachusetts General Hospital, the hospital affiliated with Harvard Medical School; the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS); the National Institutes of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID); and Walter Reed Army Medical Institute ? sold in medical bookstores ? purchased by innumerable city and state health agencies ? and utilized as a textbook at colleges, nursing schools, and public health schools.

In addition to conducting investigative research of the scientific and medical literature, Chris Jennings provides writing services to the pharmaceutical, medical, and diagnostic industries. He has written HIV assay (HIV antibody test) specification sheets, articles about the juxtaposition of the HIV assay in the diagnosis and clinical management of HIV infection, articles about diagnostic assay architecture, and clinical trial reports for submission to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) on several antiretroviral drugs and drugs versus AIDS-related opportunistic infections.


TABLE OF CONTENTS

Introduction

Republic of South Africa (RSA) Death Counts, 1997 - 2008

Compare the Numbers

--- AIDS Cases in the RSA Compared With United States, 1981 - 2002

--- AIDS Cases in All of Africa Compared with United States, 1981 - 2002

--- WHO Estimates for All of Africa Compared with Surveillance Data, 1993 - 2007

The Search for More HIV/AIDS Deaths in the RSA

The First AIDS Cases in the RSA

Why Are the Estimates so Escalated?

--- Misconception of the HIV Incubation Period

--- Misconception of the Natural Course for HIV Infection

------ The T-Cell Defect

------ Opportunistic Diseases Consequent to the T-Cell Defect

------ HIV / AIDS Mortality in Untreated Patients

------ Forgotten Knowledge

--- Antenatal HIV Sero-Survey Findings

Tuberculosis & Other Killers

Discussion

Summary

--- Estimates Derived from RSA Death Tabulations

--- Estimates Derived from U.S. Mortality Rates

--- Estimates Derived from an Assumed HIV Prevalence

Errata & Updates

References

Appendices

--- Appendix A: Statistics South Africa vs. NCHS Ranking Methods

--- Appendix B: Underlying vs. Causes of Death: 1997, 1999, And 2001

--- Appendix C: The RSA Death Count Data Set, 1997-2008

--- Appendix D: HIV / AIDS in the RSA Health System

--- Appendix E: The 1982 CDC Case Definition for AIDS

--- Appendix F: The South African HIV Club - Blacks Only

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Descrizione libro Health Alert Communications February 2012, 2012. Trade Paperback. Condizione libro: Like New. Bright and clean with an unmarked interior and tight spine. In pristine condition, kept in our back room to avoid wear. Mockingbird Books has two brick and mortar used book stores located in Sebastopol and Guerneville California. We carefully inspect all our books for condition. You can trust our listing is accurate and all our offerings are correctly assessed. Codice libro della libreria 69556

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Descrizione libro Health Alert Communications, United States, 2012. Paperback. Condizione libro: New. 274 x 213 mm. Language: English . Brand New Book ***** Print on Demand *****.Few people realize that the familiar HIV/AIDS global statistics are actually estimates. For example, UNAIDS estimated that the Republic of South Africa (RSA) had 140,000 HIV/AIDS deaths in 1997. However, after tabulating all deaths for 1997, the Republic of South Africa attributed only 6,635 deaths to HIV/AIDS. Such discrepancies are rarely noted. The Republic of South Africa (RSA) stands as the exemplar of these discrepancies. It is reputed to have the world s largest AIDS epidemic with an estimated 5.6 million people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWH) in 2008. Such PLWH estimates, as with the estimates of HIV/AIDS deaths, are highly questionable. HIV/AIDS in South Africa: The Facts and the Fiction clarifies the reasons behind these discrepancies by describing two common misunderstandings of HIV infection that contribute to poor mathematical modeling outcomes. Fully referenced, HIV/AIDS in South Africa: The Facts and the Fiction presents and compares raw numerical data on: ? the tabulated number of HIV/AIDS deaths in the RSA; ? the number of AIDS cases detected by RSA disease surveillance systems; ? UNAIDS/WHO estimates for AIDS deaths in the RSA; and ? UNAIDS/WHO estimates for the number of people living with HIV/AIDS in the RSA. The total cumulative numbers of HIV/AIDS cases in the United States and the cumulative totals for the continent of Africa are also presented for purposes of comparison, and to place the African and RSA data within appropriate epidemiological context. Overall, these data span from 1981 to 2009. Altogether, these data, plus additional information detailing the nature of HIV infection and heterosexual HIV transmission rates, explain why the hyperbolic mathematical estimates and HIV antibody test surveys the primary sources of HIV/AIDS data in Africa are simply implausible. Contents: 118 pages, 20 tables, several side boxes, and 240 references. Codice libro della libreria AAV9780936571089

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Descrizione libro Health Alert Communications, United States, 2012. Paperback. Condizione libro: New. 274 x 213 mm. Language: English . Brand New Book ***** Print on Demand *****. Few people realize that the familiar HIV/AIDS global statistics are actually estimates. For example, UNAIDS estimated that the Republic of South Africa (RSA) had 140,000 HIV/AIDS deaths in 1997. However, after tabulating all deaths for 1997, the Republic of South Africa attributed only 6,635 deaths to HIV/AIDS. Such discrepancies are rarely noted. The Republic of South Africa (RSA) stands as the exemplar of these discrepancies. It is reputed to have the world s largest AIDS epidemic with an estimated 5.6 million people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWH) in 2008. Such PLWH estimates, as with the estimates of HIV/AIDS deaths, are highly questionable. HIV/AIDS in South Africa: The Facts and the Fiction clarifies the reasons behind these discrepancies by describing two common misunderstandings of HIV infection that contribute to poor mathematical modeling outcomes. Fully referenced, HIV/AIDS in South Africa: The Facts and the Fiction presents and compares raw numerical data on: ? the tabulated number of HIV/AIDS deaths in the RSA; ? the number of AIDS cases detected by RSA disease surveillance systems; ? UNAIDS/WHO estimates for AIDS deaths in the RSA; and ? UNAIDS/WHO estimates for the number of people living with HIV/AIDS in the RSA. The total cumulative numbers of HIV/AIDS cases in the United States and the cumulative totals for the continent of Africa are also presented for purposes of comparison, and to place the African and RSA data within appropriate epidemiological context. Overall, these data span from 1981 to 2009. Altogether, these data, plus additional information detailing the nature of HIV infection and heterosexual HIV transmission rates, explain why the hyperbolic mathematical estimates and HIV antibody test surveys the primary sources of HIV/AIDS data in Africa are simply implausible. Contents: 118 pages, 20 tables, several side boxes, and 240 references. Codice libro della libreria AAV9780936571089

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Descrizione libro Health Alert Communications. Paperback. Condizione libro: New. Paperback. 118 pages. Dimensions: 10.8in. x 8.4in. x 0.5in.Few people realize that the familiar HIVAIDS global statistics are actually estimates. For example, UNAIDS estimated that the Republic of South Africa (RSA) had 140, 000 HIVAIDS deaths in 1997. However, after tabulating all deaths for 1997, the Republic of South Africa attributed only 6, 635 deaths to HIVAIDS. Such discrepancies are rarely noted. The Republic of South Africa (RSA) stands as the exemplar of these discrepancies. It is reputed to have the worlds largest AIDS epidemic with an estimated 5. 6 million people living with HIVAIDS (PLWH) in 2008. Such PLWH estimates, as with the estimates of HIVAIDS deaths, are highly questionable. HIVAIDS in South Africa - The Facts and the Fiction clarifies the reasons behind these discrepancies by describing two common misunderstandings of HIV infection that contribute to poor mathematical modeling outcomes. Unfortunately, the health authorities in the Republic of South Africa grant more validity to computer-generated estimates than to their own empirical death counts. HIVAIDS in South Africa - The Facts and the Fiction discusses why these modeled estimates, and the HIV sero-prevalence surveys upon which they are based, are simply implausible. Fully referenced, HIVAIDS in South Africa - The Facts and the Fiction presents and compares raw numerical data on: the tabulated number of HIVAIDS deaths in the RSA; the number of AIDS cases detected by RSA disease surveillance systems; UNAIDSWHO estimates for AIDS deaths in the RSA; and UNAIDSWHO estimates for the number of people living with HIVAIDS in the RSA. The total cumulative numbers of HIVAIDS cases in the United States and the cumulative totals for the continent of Africa are also presented for purposes of comparison, and to place the African and RSA data within appropriate epidemiological context. Overall, these data span from 1981 to 2009. Altogether, these data, plus additional information detailing the nature of HIV infection and heterosexual HIV transmission rates, explain why the hyperbolic mathematical estimates and HIV antibody test surveys - the primary sources of HIVAIDS data in Africa - are simply implausible. Contents: 118 pages, 20 tables, several side boxes, and 240 references. This item ships from multiple locations. Your book may arrive from Roseburg,OR, La Vergne,TN. Paperback. Codice libro della libreria 9780936571089

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