New Uses of Ion Accelerators

ISBN 13: 9780306308536

New Uses of Ion Accelerators

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9780306308536: New Uses of Ion Accelerators
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The use of ion accelerators for purposes other than nuclear l physics research has expanded to the point where lother uses are now the most typical. The point has been reached where there are as many ion accelerators in industry, as in universities; and the bulk of new accelerator purchases appears to be for applied pur- poses. We mention this as introduction to a tribute to an earlier book: IINew Uses of Low Energy Accelerators" (1968). The authors of tnis book were almost all nuclear physicists. This book ad- dressed itself to new uses other than nuclear research. And in great part because of the widespread seminal influence of this book, many of the new uses discussed became mature fields of re- search with their own conferences and publications. We have attempted in this book to both update with topics not included in the first book, and to present in a more tutorial and detailed manner the topics discussed. This book is in many ways a joint book. All chapters were the result of considerable collaboration between the authors. We hope that, above all, we have written with clarity. We welcome comments and questions from any reader. James F. Ziegler IBM-Research v CONTENTS CHAPTER 1. Ion-Excited X-Ray Analysis of Environmental Samples Thomas A. Cahill I. Introduction ...*...

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1. Ion-Excited X-Ray Analysis of Environmental Samples.- I. Introduction.- II. General Considerations for Ion Beam Analysis of Environmental Samples.- III. Formalism and Optimization.- IV. The UCD/ARB Aerosol Analysis System.- A. The Primary Ion Beam.- B. Detection of X-Rays.- C. Data Acquisition and Reduction.- D. System Calibration.- E. Target Preparation and Matrix Effects.- F. Estimation of Analytical Costs.- G. Validation of System Operations.- V. Ion-Excited X-Ray Analysis Programs.- Appendix (Forward Scattering).- Acknowledgments.- References.- 2: Material Analysis by Nuclear Backscattering.- A. Introduction.- General Comments on Nuclear Backscattering.- Appendix (Numerical Examples).- References.- B. Applications.- I. Introduction.- II. Ion Implantation.- III. Thin Films: Growth and Deposition.- IV. Thin Film Reactions: Interdiffusion and Compound Formation.- V. Bulk Effects: Composition, Diffusion and Solubility.- VI. Concluding Remarks.- Acknowledgments.- References.- Formalism.- 1. Three Basic Concepts in Backscattering.- A. Backscattering Kinematic Factor Mass ? Analysis.- B. Differential Scattering Cross Section ? Quantitative Analysis.- C. Energy Loss ? Depth Analysis.- 2. Depth Scale in Backscattering Analysis [S].- A. Depth Scale in Backscattering Analysis.- B. Surface Approximation.- C. Linear Approximation.- 3. Height of an Energy Spectrum.- A. Surface Approximation for Spectrum Height.- B. Thick Target Yield.- C. Backscattering Yield of a Thin Film.- 4. Applications of Backscattering from Elemental Targets.- A. Surface Contamination and Ion Implantation.- B. Doping Level of a Bulk Sample.- C. Film Thickness Measurement and dE/dx Measurements.- D. Yield Formula and dE/dx Measurements.- E. Differential Scattering Cross Section Measurement.- 5. Application of Backscattering to Compound Targets.- A. Thin Film Analysis.- B. Thick Compound Targets.- C. Analysis on Composition Varying Continuously with Depth.- Appendix 1. Notations.- Appendix 2. Formulae.- Appendix 3. Sources for dE/dx Information.- References.- 3: Material Analysis by Means of Nuclear Reactions.- Charged Particle Activation Analysis.- Charged Particle Activation Analysis — Examples.- Prompt Radiation Analysis.- Nonresonant Nuclear Reactions — Gamma Rays Observed.- Nonresonant Nuclear Reactions — Nuclear Particles Observed.- Resonant Nuclear Reactions.- Summary.- Acknowledgment.- References.- 4: Lattice Location of Impurities in Metals and Semiconductors.- I. Introduction.- II. Impurity Detection.- III. The Channeling Technique.- 1. Channeling Concept.- 2. Experimental Technique.- IV. Lattice Location Analysis.- V. Examples.- 1. Substitutional Impurities.- 2. Nearly Substitutional Impurities.- 3. Interstitial Impurities.- 4. High Impurity Concentrations.- 5. Radiation-Induced Change in Impurity Sites.- VI. Summary of the Literature on Channeling Lattice Location Data.- VII. Limitations.- VIII. Conclusions.- References.- 5: Ion Implantation in Metals.- Historical Perspective.- Friction and Wear.- Corrosion.- 1. Oxides with Anion Defects.- 2. Oxides with Cation Defects.- Ion Backscattering.- Titanium and Stainless Steel.- Zirconium.- Aluminum.- Copper.- Aqueous Corrosion.- Practical Applications in Corrosion.- Electrochemistry and Catalysis.- Implantation Metallurgy.- Equipment for the Ion Implantation of Metals.- Conclusions.- References.- 6: Ion Implantation in Superconductors.- Definition of the Superconducting Parameters.- Influence of Radiation Damage on the Superconducting Properties.- a. Non-Transition Metals.- b. Transition Metals.- c. Transition Metal Alloys.- d. Superconductors with A-15 and NaCl-Structure.- e. Transition Metal Layer Compounds.- f. Quantitative Estimation of Damage in Superconductors.- Influence of Implanted Ions on the Superconducting Transition Temperature.- a. Magnetic Impurities in Non Transition Metals.- b. Pd-, Pd-Noble Metal Alloy, -Hydrogen System.- c. Ion Implanted Transition Metal Systems.- d. Aluminum Based Ion Implanted Systems.- Application to Superconducting Devices.- Conclusions.- References.- 7: Ion-Induced X-Rays from Gas Collisions.- 1. Introduction.- 2. Collision Models.- 2.1. Survey of Models.- 2.2. Coulomb Ionization.- 2.3. The Molecular-Orbital Model.- 3. Measurements of Inner-Shell Excitations.- 3.1. Introduction.- 3.2. Theory of Energy-Loss Measurements.- 3.3. X-Ray and Electron Emission.- 3.4. Typical Apparatus-Ionization and Inelastic Energy Loss.- 3.5. Scattered- Ion—X-Ray/Electron Coincidence Apparatus.- 4. Discussion of Typical Data.- 4.1. Ionization States.- 4.2. Inelastic Energy Loss.- 4.3. Electron Emission Cross Sections.- 4.4. Fluorescence Yield Effects.- 4.5. X-Ray—Scattered-Ion Coincidence Data.- 4.6. X-Rays from Highly Stripped Fast Ion Beams.- 5. Summary.- References.- 8: Ion-Induced X-Rays in Solids.- 1. Introduction.- 2. Accelerators and Target Chambers.- 2.1. Ion Sources.- 2.2. Target Chambers.- 3. The Detection and Analysis of X-Rays.- 3.1. The Gas Flow Proportional Counter.- 3.2. The Si(Li) Detector.- 3.3. The X-Ray Crystal or Grating Spectrometer.- 4. The Use of Protons and Helium Ions to Generate X-Rays from Solid Targets.- 4.1. Current Areas of Fundamental Interest.- 4.2. Applications.- 5. The Use of Heavy Ions to Generate X-Rays from Solid Targets.- 5.1. General Background.- 5.2. Physical Processes.- 5.3. Applications.- 6. Conclusions.- References.- Author Index.

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9781468421712: New Uses of Ion Accelerators

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ISBN 10: 1468421719 ISBN 13: 9781468421712
Casa editrice: Springer Verlag, 2012

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Ziegler, J.F.
Editore: Plenum Press (1975)
ISBN 10: 0306308533 ISBN 13: 9780306308536
Antico o usato Rilegato Prima edizione Quantità: 1
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(Vancouver, WA, U.S.A.)
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Descrizione libro Plenum Press, 1975. Hardcover. Condizione: Near Fine. Condizione sovraccoperta: Near Fine. 1st Edition. hardback book and dust jacket in near fine condition. Codice articolo 125670

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