The Hippocampus: Volume 1: Structure and Development: 001

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9780306375354: The Hippocampus: Volume 1: Structure and Development: 001
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These books are the result of a conviction held by the editors, authors, and publisher that the time is appropriate for assembling in one place information about functions of the hippocampus derived from many varied lines of research. Because of the explosion of research into the anatomy, physiology, chemistry, and behavioral aspects of the hip­ pocampus, some means of synthesis of the results from these lines of research was called for. We first thought of a conference. In fact, officials in the National Institute of Mental Health suggested we organize such a conference on the hippocampus, but after a few tentative steps in this direction, interest at the federallevel waned, probably due to the decreases in federal support for research in the basic health sciences so keenly feit in recent years. However, the editors also had co me to the view that conferences are mainly valuabIe to the participants. The broad range of students (of all ages) of brain­ behavior relations do not profit from conference proceedings unless the proceedings are subsequently published. Furthermore, conferences dealing with the functional character of organ systems approached from many points of view are most successful after participants have become acquainted with each other's work. Therefore, we believe that a book is the best format for disseminating information, and that its publication can be the stimulus for many future conferences.

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I. Organization.- 1. Fiber architecture of the Hippocampal Formation: Anatomy, Projections, and Structural Significance.- 1. Introduction.- 2. Limbic Lobe.- 3. Anatomy of the Hippocampal Formation.- 4. Hippocampal Formation: External Afferent Supply.- 4.1. Lateral Input System (Through Entorhinal Area).- 4.2. Supracallosal Input.- 4.3. Fornix-Fimbrial Fibers.- 5. Hippocampal Formation: Commissural Connections.- 6. Hippocampal Formation: Internal Afferents.- 7. Hippocampal Efferents.- 8. Conclusion.- 9. Addendum.- 10. References.- 2. Septohippocampal Interface.- 1. Introduction.- 2. Connections Between the Septum and the Hippocampus.- 2.1. Hippocamposeptal.- 2.2. Septohippocampal.- 2.3. Indirect Connections.- 3. Major Outputs of the Septum and the Hippocampus.- 3.1. Mammillary Projections.- 3.2. Thalamic Projections.- 4. Summary and Conclusions.- 5. Appendix: Comments on Stains.- 5.1. Cell Stains.- 5.2. Fiber Stains.- 5.3. Autoradiography.- 5.4. Histochemical Neuroanatomy.- 6. References.- 3. Development of the Hippocampal Region.- 1. Introduction.- 2. Terminology and Orientation.- 3. Definition of Areas.- 4. Comparative Neuroanatomical Aspects—Evolution of the Region.- 4.1. Cyclostomes.- 4.2. Cartilaginous Fishes.- 4.3. Bony Fishes.- 4.4. Amphibians.- 4.5. Reptiles.- 4.6. Birds.- 4.7. Mammals.- 5. Morphogenetic Aspects—Shaping of the Region.- 5.1. Classical Studies.- 5.2. Autoradiographic Studies.- 5.3. Other Studies and Approaches for the Future.- 6. References.- 4. Postnatal Development of the Hippocampal Dentate Gyrus Under Normal and Experimental Conditions.- 1. Introduction.- 2. Normal Development of the Dentate Gyrus.- 2.1. Cytogenesis.- 2.2. Morphogenesis.- 2.3. Synaptogenesis.- 2.4. Gliogenesis and Myelogenesis.- 3. Development of the Dentate Gyrus Under Experimental Conditions.- 3.1. Effects of Interference with Cytogenesis.- 3.2. Effects of Interference with Morphogenesis.- 4. References.- 5. The Hippocampus as a Model for Studying Anatomical Plasticity in the Adult Brain.- 1. Introduction.- 2. Studies on Sprouting Outside the Hippocampus.- 2.1. Light Microscopic Studies.- 2.2. Electron Microscopic Studies.- 2.3. Negative Results.- 3. Studies on Sprouting in the Hippocampus.- 3.1. Studies with Adult Rats.- 3.2. Studies with Immature Rats.- 3.3. Negative Results.- 4. Status of Sprouting in the Brain.- 5. Hypotheses Regarding Mechanisms Controlling Sprouting in the Hippocampus.- 5.1. Initiation.- 5.2. Principles for the Reorganization of Terminal Fields.- 6. Conclusion and Summary.- 7. References.- 6. Organization of Hippocampal Neurons and Their Interconnections.- 1. Extrinsic Connections of the Hippocampus.- 1.1. The Perforant Path.- 1.2. Other Afferents to the Dentate Area.- 1.3. Afferents to the CA3 Region.- 1.4. Afferents to the CA1 Region.- 1.5. Afferents to the Subiculum.- 2. Intrinsic Connections: Basket Cell Inhibition.- 3. Output from the Hippocampal Formation.- 4. Lamellar Organization of the Hippocampal Formation.- 5. Frequency Characteristics of Hippocampal and Dentate Synapses.- 6. Localization of Synapses on Hippocampal Neurons and Axons.- 7. Localization of Putative Transmitters in the Hippocampal Formation.- 8. References.- 7. An Ongoing Analysis of Hippocampal Inputs and Outputs: Microelectrode and Neuroanatomical Findings in Squirrel Monkeys.- 1. Introduction.- 1.1. Evolutionary Considerations.- 1.2. The Problem of “Sensory” Inputs.- 1.3. Antecedent Findings.- 2. Microelectrode and Anatomical Findings on Limbic Inputs.- 2.1. Methods.- 2.2. Visual Input.- 2.3. Comment.- 2.4. “Approach-Type” Units.- 2.5. Auditory Input.- 2.6. Somatic Input.- 2.7. Gustatory Stimulation.- 2.8. Comment.- 2.9. Stimulation of Olfactory Bulb.- 2.10. Vagal Input.- 2.11. The Question of Limbic Sensory Integration.- 2.12. Inputs to Hypothalamus.- 3. Hippocampal Influence on the Brain Stem.- 3.1. Neuroanatomical Correlations.- 3.2. Dorsal Thalamus.- 3.3. Comment.- 4. Conclusion and Summary.- 5. References.- II. Neurochemistry and Endocrinology.- 8. Monoamine Neurons Innervating the Hippocampal Formation and Septum: Organization and Response to Injury.- 1. Introduction.- 2. Organization of Hippocampal and Septal Monoamine Innervation.- 2.1. Hippocampal Formation.- 2.2. Septum.- 3. Response to Injury of Hippocampal and Septal Monoamine Innervation.- 3.1. Regeneration of the Transected Axon.- 3.2. Collateral Reinnervation.- 4. Conclusions.- 5. References.- 9. Neurotransmitters and the Hippocampus.- 1. Introduction.- 2. Techniques.- 2.1. Release Studies.- 2.2. Identity of Action.- 3. Transmitter Substances.- 3.1. Acetylcholine.- 3.2. Inhibitory Amino Acids.- 3.3. Other Putative Transmitters.- 4. Conclusions.- 5. References.- 10. Cholinergic Neurons: Septal-Hippocampal Relationships.- 1. Introduction.- 2. Localization of Cholinergic Neurons in Mammalian Central Nervous System.- 2.1. The Histochemical Method for Acetylcholinesterase.- 2.2. The Histochemical Method for Choline Acetyl transferase.- 3. Evidence for a Septal-Hippocampal Pathway.- 3.1. Anatomy of the Hippocampus.- 3.2. Histochemical and Biochemical Studies.- 4. Electrophysiological Studies.- 5. Sprouting of Cholinergic Neurons After Cortical Injury.- 6. Biochemical Experiments.- 7. References.- 11. Putative Glucocorticoid Receptors in Hippocampus and Other Regions of the Rat Brain.- 1. Introduction.- 2. Cellular Mechanisms of Hormone Action.- 3. Studies of Putative Estrogen Receptors in Brain.- 4. Glucocorticoid Interaction with Rat Brain: Preferential Uptake by Hippocampus.- 5. Subcellular Localization of [3H] Corticosterone Binding Sites in Hippocampus.- 6. Soluble Glucocorticoid Binding Proteins in Brain and Other Target Tissues.- 7. Study of Cellular Mechanism of [3H] Corticosterone Entry into Hippocampal Cell Nuclei.- 8. Factors Affecting Amount of Glucocorticoid Binding Protein in Hippocampus.- 9. Adrenal Steroid and Brain Chemistry.- 10. Neurochemistry of the Hippocampus.- 11. Adrenal Glucocorticoids and Limbic Control of Pituitary Function.- 12. Adrenal Steroid Effects on Detection and Recognition of Sensory Stimuli.- 13. Pituitary-Adrenal System and Stress-Related Behavior.- 14. Pituitary-Adrenal Axis, Hippocampus, and Behavior.- 15. References.- 12. The Hippocampus and the Pituitary-Adrenal System Hormones.- 1. Introduction.- 2. Septal-Hippocampal Function and Release of Pituitary-Adrenal System Hormones.- 3. Pituitary-Adrenal System Hormones and Functional Activity of the Septal-Hippocampal Complex: Endocrine Aspects.- 4. Pituitary-Adrenal System Hormones and Functional Activity of the Septal-Hippocampal Complex: Behavioral Aspects.- 5. The Septal-Hippocampal System: Is It the Substrate of the Behavioral Effect ofACTH and Related Peptides?.- 6. General Discussion and Conclusions.- 7. References.- 13. The Hippocampus and Hormonal Cyclicity.- 1. Introduction.- 2. Gonadal Hormones and Cyclicity.- 2.1. Electrical Activity: Spontaneous, Evoked, and Multiple Unit.- 2.2. Effects of Lesion and Stimulation.- 3. Adrenocortical Hormones and Sensory Information Processing.- 4. Adrenocortical Hormones and Cyclicity.- 5. New Horizons.- 6. References.- 14. The Hippocampus and Regulation of the Hypothalamic- Hypophyseal-Adrenal Cortical Axis.- 1. Introduction.- 2. Diurnal Rhythms and Responses to Stress: Different Functional Systems.- 3. The Hippocampus and Regulation of Circadian Rhythm of Corticosteroid Hormone.- 3.1. Fornix Section.- 3.2. Hippocampal Steroid Implants.- 3.3. Summary.- 4. The Hippocampus and Regulation of Corticosteroid Responses to Stress.- 4.1. Electrical Stimulation of Hippocampus.- 4.2. Ablation of Hippocampus.- 4.3. Hippocampus and Adrenocortical Feedback Mechanisms.- 4.4. Hippocampal Steroid Implants.- 4.5. Summary.- 5. References.- 15. Hippocampal Protein Synthesis and Spike Discharges in Relation to Memory.- 1. Introduction.- 2. Macro molecular Synthesis in the Hippocampus.- 2.1. Macromolecular Theory of Flexner.- 2.2. Enhancement of Macromolecular Synthesis.- 3. Effects of Epileptogenic Substances.- 3.1. Actinomycin D.- 3.2. Puromycin.- 3.3. Penicillin.- 4. Disruptive Stimulation of the Hippocampus.- 4.1. Potassium Chloride.- 4.2. Acute Lesions.- 4.3. Cholinergic Stimulation.- 5. Retrograde Amnesia by Electrical Stimulation.- 5.1. Stimulation of the Hippocampus.- 5.2. Stimulation of Other Structures.- 5.3. Kindling.- 6. Mechanisms Underlying the Amnesic Effect.- 7. References.

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Isaacson Robert L and Pribram Karl H Editing
Editore: Plenum Press, New York
ISBN 10: 0306375354 ISBN 13: 9780306375354
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(Austin, TX, U.S.A.)
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