Chemical Principles of Environmental Pollution

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9780751400137: Chemical Principles of Environmental Pollution
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Pollution is the most serious of all environmental problems and poses a major threat to the health and well-being of millions of people and global ecosystems. Other major environmental problems are either wholly or partly caused by pollution; these include global warming, climatic change and the loss of biodiversity through the extinction of many species. In the future, environmental pressures can only increase as a result of population growth and the expectation of higher living standards. For at least thirty years people have become increasingly aware of these issues. As a result governments and regulatory bodies have responded by taking action against grossly polluting activities and by enforcing tighter limits on the emission of pollutants into the environment. As the level of control improves so the financial costs increase exponentially, hence an effective limit must be imposed which does not impose unacceptable burdens on industrial producers. As a consequence of the increasing economic and legal pressures which result from pollution control, there is a growing need for greater under­ standing of the scientific principles underlying environmental pollution.

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Contenuti:

One Basic Principles.- 1 Introduction.- 1.1 Pollution in the modern world.- 1.2 Definition of pollution.- References.- Further reading.- 2 Transport and behaviour of pollutants in the environment.- 2.1 A basic model of environmental pollution.- 2.2 Sources of pollutants.- 2.3 The pollutants.- 2.3.1 Classification of hazardous substances in the USA.- 2.3.2 European Community Dangerous Substances Directive.- 2.3.3 UK priority list of pollutants.- 2.3.4 Pesticides.- 2.3.5 Indoor pollution.- 2.4 Physical processes of pollutant transport and dispersion.- 2.4.1 Transport media.- 2.4.2 Transport of pollutants in air.- 2.4.3 Some important types of reactions which pollutantsundergo in the atmosphere.- 2.5 Transport of pollutants in water.- 2.5.1 Biochemical processes in water (involving microorganisms).- 2.6 The behaviour of pollutants in the soil.- 2.6.1 The composition and physico-chemical properties of soils.- 2.6.2 Cation and anion adsorption in soils.- 2.6.3 Adsorption and decomposition of organic pollutants.- 2.7 Concluding remarks.- References.- 3 Toxicity and risk assessment of environmental pollutants.- 3.1 Basic principles of toxicology.- 3.2 Effects of pollutants on animals and plants.- 3.2.1 Effects of pollutants on humans and other mammals.- 3.2.2 Teratogenesis, mutagenesis, carcinogenesis and immunesystem defects.- 3.2.3 Ecotoxicology.- 3.3 Assessment of toxicity risks.- 3.3.1 Pollutants in contaminated land.- 3.3.2 Pollutants in drinking water.- 3.3.3 Toxic or explosive gases and vapours.- References.- 4 Analysis and monitoring of pollutants — organiccompounds.- 4.1 Chromatography.- 4.2 Thin layer chromatography (TLC).- 4.2.1 Separation of pesticides.- 4.2.2 Separation of metal cations.- 4.3 Gas liquid chromatography (GLC).- 4.3.1 Detection of eluted substances.- 4.3.2 Principal parameters.- 4.3.3 Optimum operating conditions.- 4.3.4 Capillary columns for GLC.- 4.3.5 Analysis of urban air pollution.- 4.3.6 Detection by mass spectrometry.- 4.4 High pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC).- 4.4.1 The components.- 4.4.2 Detectors.- 4.4.3 Analysis of polluted air.- 4.4.4 Analysis of polluted water.- 4.4.5 Trace enrichment followed by GLC analysis.- 4.5 Pollution by metals — atomic absorption spectroscopy.- 4.5.1 Historical.- 4.5.2 Basic theory of atomic absorption and emission.- 4.5.3 The Lambert—Beer law.- 4.5.4 Instrumental details.- 4.5.5 Interferences.- 4.5.6 The determination of sodium in concrete by AAS.- 4.5.7 Sample preparation.- 4.5.8 Precision and accuracy of measurement.- 4.5.9 Graphite furnace AAS.- 4.6 A plasma source.- 4.6.1 ICP-mass spectrometry.- 4.7 Analytical quality assurance.- 4.8 Environmental monitoring.- 4.8.1 Introduction.- 4.8.2 Monitoring emissions.- References.- Further reading.- Two the Pollutants.- 5 Inorganic pollutants.- 5.1 Ozone.- 5.1.1 Historical.- 5.1.2 Formation.- 5.1.3 Physical properties and structure.- 5.1.4 The ozone layer.- 5.1.5 Factors which disturb the natural environment.- 5.1.6 Chemistry of stratospheric CFC.- 5.1.7 Control measures.- 5.1.8 Ozone in the troposphere.- 5.1.9 Diurnal variations of ozone levels.- 5.1.10 Toxicity and control.- 5.2 Oxides of carbon, nitrogen and sulphur.- 5.2.1 Carbon dioxide.- 5.2.2 Oxides of nitrogen.- 5.2.3 Oxides of sulphur.- 5.3 Heavy metals.- 5.3.1 General properties.- 5.3.2 Biochemical properties of heavy metals.- 5.3.3 Sources of heavy metals.- 5.3.4 Environmental media affected.- 5.3.5 Heavy metal behaviour in the environment.- 5.3.6 Toxic effects of heavy metals.- 5.3.7 Analytical methods.- 5.3.8 Examples of specific heavy metals.- 5.4 Other metals and inorganic pollutants.- 5.4.1 Aluminium.- 5.4.2 Beryllium.- 5.4.3 Fluorine.- 5.5 Radionuclides.- 5.5.1 History and nomenclature.- 5.5.2 Types of radioactive emission.- 5.5.3 Units of energy and measurement of toxicity.- 5.5.4 Radioactive potassium.- 5.5.5 Production of radionuclides by artificial means.- 5.5.6 Nuclear fission.- 5.5.7 Power generation I n nuclear reactors.- 5.5.8 Nuclear reactor types.- 5.5.9 The future of nuclear power.- 5.5.10 Observations on major accidents.- 5.5.11 Radioactive release within buildings.- 5.5.12 Social aspects of nuclear power generation.- 5.5.13 Power from thermal fusion.- 5.5.14 Cold fusion.- 5.6 Mineral fibres and particles.- 5.6.1 General aspects.- 5.6.2 Analysis.- 5.6.3 Examples of mineral pollutants.- References.- Further reading.- 6 Organic pollutants.- 6.1 Smoke.- 6.2 Methane and other hydrocarbons — coal and oil as sources.- 6.2.1 The formation of coal.- 6.2.2 Petroleum.- 6.2.3 Methane.- 6.2.4 Higher alkanes.- 6.2.5 Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH).- 6.3 Organic solvents.- 6.3.1 Adhesives.- 6.3.2 Coatings and inks.- 6.3.3 Aerosol sprays.- 6.3.4 Metal cleaning.- 6.3.5 Dry cleaning of clothes.- 6.3.6 Solvent toxicology.- 6.3.7 Organochlorine compounds.- 6.3.8 Detergents.- 6.3.9 Indoor pollution.- 6.4 Organohalides: pesticides, PCBs and dioxins.- 6.4.1 Historical.- 6.4.2 Organochlorine production.- 6.4.3 DDT (dichlorodiphenyl trichloroethane).- 6.4.4 Lindane, hexachlorocyclohexane.- 6.4.5 Some other chlorinated pesticides.- 6.4.6 Organochlorine herbicides.- 6.4.7 Toxic effects of insecticides.- 6.4.8 Control of pesticides.- 6.4.9 Vinyl chloride and polyvinyl chloride.- 6.4.10 Polychlorobiphenyls.- 6.4.11 Toxic substances in herbicides.- 6.4.12 Metabolism of chloraromatic compounds.- 6.4.13 Disposal of organochlorine compounds.- 6.4.14 Cremation or burial.- 6.4.15 Use of decay organisms.- 6.5 Natural, organophosphorus and carbamate pesticides.- 6.5.1 Naturally occurring pesticides.- 6.5.2 Organophosphorus pesticides.- 6.5.3 Carbamate pesticides.- 6.6 Odours.- 6.6.1 Important properties of odours.- 6.6.2 Methods of odour control.- 6.6.3 Methods of odour treatment.- References.- Further reading.- Three Wastes and other Multi-Pollutant Situations.- 7 Wastes and their disposal.- 7.1 Introduction.- 7.2 Amounts of waste produced.- 7.2.1 Industrial wastes.- 7.2.2 Municipal wastes.- 7.3 Methods of disposal of municipal wastes.- 7.3.1 Landfilling.- 7.3.2 Incineration.- 7.3.3 Composting.- 7.3.4 Recycling.- 7.4 Sewage treatment.- 7.5 Hazardous wastes.- 7.5.1 The nature and amount of hazardous waste produced.- 7.5.2 Hazardous waste management.- 7.5.3 New technologies for waste disposal.- 7.6 Long-term pollution problems of abandoned landfills containinghazardous wastes.- 7.6.1 Love Canal, New York, USA.- 7.6.2 Lekkerkirk, near Rotterdam, The Netherlands.- 7.7 Tanker accidents and oil spillages at sea.- 7.8 Other multi-pollutant situations.- 7.9 Chemical time bombs.- References.- Appendix Table of units and conversions.

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9780751403800: Chemical Principles of Environmental Pollution, Second Edition

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ISBN 10: 0751403806 ISBN 13: 9780751403800
Casa editrice: CRC Press, 1997
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B.J. Alloway (Editor), D.C. Ayres (Editor)
Editore: Springer (1993)
ISBN 10: 0751400130 ISBN 13: 9780751400137
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Descrizione libro Springer, 1993. Paperback. Condizione: New. 2nd. Codice articolo DADAX0751400130

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