Youth at Risk and Youth Justice: A Canadian Overview

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9780195441307: Youth at Risk and Youth Justice: A Canadian Overview

Youth at Risk and Youth Justice: A Canadian Overview provides an overview of juvenile delinquency in Canada by examining important patterns, theories, and emerging special topics. Topics considered fundamental to understanding the complexity of youth crime and youth justice such as the history of youth justice in Canada, current youth justice legislation, young female offenders, youth gangs, substance abuse, and Aboriginal youth in conflict with the law are covered in detail. Youth at Risk and Youth Justice also covers important, timely topics that are not commonly addressed in as much detail in other undergraduate textbooks. Chapters on street-involved youth (Chapter 11), the sexual exploitation of adolescent men (Chapter 13), Quebec's approach to youth justice, and that province's success in diverting offenders from custody (Chapter 14), and the coverage of restorative justice (Chapter 15) have received little to no attention in textbooks with a similar focus, but are included in this book to help students gain a better understanding of the cycle of victimization and criminal behaviour that affects many young people. Youth at Risk and Youth Justice is comprehensive in its coverage presenting many different points of view in a user-friendly way, encouraging students to read and be challenged, with the hope that they will continue to study youth justice issues. Each chapter offers readers current coverage and analysis on timely issues in the field. It is a contributed text with 30 expert contributors, each with their own unique interests and perspectives. By bringing together such a diverse group of contributors, the editors have provided students with the tools to help them think more broadly about the complexities of youth crime and delinquency.

Le informazioni nella sezione "Riassunto" possono far riferimento a edizioni diverse di questo titolo.

About the Author:

John Winterdyk is the current director for the Centre of Criminology and Justice Research at Mount Royal University. He is also an adjunct professor at St. Thomas University in Fredericton, NB, the University of Regina, and the Polytechnic of Namibia in Windhoek, NamibiaHe has created over 20 textbooks and is currently working on a coedited textbook on human trafficking (Taylor & Francis), and coediting a book on fear of crime and punitivity (Bochum Un. Press), among other initiatives. Russell Smandych is a professor of sociology and criminology in the Department of Sociology at the University of Manitoba, and adjunct professor of criminology in the Department of Justice Studies, Mount Royal University. He is the editor and coeditor of seven books and has published widely in leading Canadian and international journals in the fields of legal history and criminology.

Contenuti:

  • Contents Overview
  • Editor and Contributor Bios
  • Editors' Preface and Acknowledgements
  • Part One: History, Trends, and Legislation
  • Introduction
  • 1: From 'Misguided Children' to 'Criminal Youth': Exploring Historical and Contemporary Trends in Canadian Youth Justice
  • Russell Smandych
  • Chapter Overview
  • Key Objectives
  • Key Terms
  • Introduction
  • The Development of Modern Juvenile Justice Systems
  • Contemporary Trends in Youth Justice Law and Practice
  • Summary
  • Review Questions
  • Critical Thinking Questions
  • Suggested Readings
  • Suggested Weblinks
  • References
  • 2: Nothing but the Facts: Measuring Youth Crime in Canada
  • John A. Winterdyk
  • Chapter Overview
  • Key Objectives
  • Key Terms
  • Introduction
  • Defining Youth Crime
  • A Historical Overview on the Emergence of Measuring Delinquency
  • Characteristics of Today's Young Offenders-The Official Picture
  • Demographic Facts
  • Violent and Non-Violent Crimes
  • Youth Justice System Facts
  • Transfers to Adult Court-Adult Sentencing
  • Recidivism
  • Unofficial Measures of Youth Crime
  • Summary
  • Review Questions
  • Critical Thinking Questions
  • Suggested Readings
  • Suggested Weblinks
  • References
  • 3: Explaining the "Youth Criminal Justice Act"
  • Ross Green
  • Chapter Overview
  • Key Objectives
  • Key Terms
  • Introduction
  • An Overview of the YCJA
  • Extrajudicial Measures: Dealing with Less-Serious Offences and Less-Experienced Young Offenders Outside of Court
  • Parents Under the YCJA
  • Sentencing Under the YCJA
  • The Relationship Between Criminal Procedures and Other Social Measures (Multi-Disciplinary Approaches to Youth Justice and Crime Prevention)
  • Conferencing Under The YCJA
  • Mental Health Issues (Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder)
  • Public Information-Publishing the Names of Young People
  • Summary
  • Review Questions
  • Critical Thinking Questions
  • Suggested Readings
  • Suggested Weblinks
  • References
  • 4: Implementing Youth Justice Reform: Effects of the "Youth Criminal Justice Act"
  • Nicholas Bala, Peter J. Carrington, and Julian V. Roberts
  • Chapter Overview
  • Key Objectives
  • Key Terms
  • Introduction
  • The Context for Canadian Youth Justice Reform
  • The YCJA and Supreme Court Judgments
  • Trends in Youth Justice and the Impact of the YCJA
  • Recent Reform Proposals
  • Summary
  • Review Questions
  • Critical Thinking Questions
  • Suggested Readings
  • Suggested Weblinks
  • References
  • Part Two: Understanding Contemporary Youth Crime and Justice: Theories and Perspectives
  • Introduction
  • 5: Youth Deviance and the Media: Mapping Knowledge and the Limits to Certainty
  • Chris McCormick
  • Chapter Overview
  • Key Objectives
  • Key Terms
  • Introduction
  • Contrasting Indices of Youth Crime
  • The Official Version
  • The Unofficial Version
  • Media Coverage of Youth Crime
  • An Example of the Media Analysis of Newspaper Articles on Youth Crime
  • Summary
  • Review Questions
  • Critical Thinking Questions
  • Suggested Readings
  • Suggested Weblinks
  • References
  • 6: Canadian Girls and Crime in the Twenty-First Century
  • Sibylle Artz, Lorinda Stoneman, and Marge Reitsma-Street
  • Chapter Overview
  • Key Objectives
  • Key Terms
  • Introduction
  • Patterns of Crime and Trends in Juvenile Justice
  • Official Charges
  • Administrative Offences
  • The Youth Criminal Justice Act
  • Overrepresentation of Aboriginal Girls
  • Court Decisions and Dispositions for Convicted Girls
  • Theories of Female Crime and Delinquency
  • Promising Directions: Towards and Intersectional Approach
  • Attending to Demographic Intersections
  • Expanded Practices Based on Intersectionality
  • Mobilize Political Change Around Equity and Human Rights
  • Summary
  • Review Questions
  • Critical Thinking Questions
  • Suggested Readings
  • Suggested Weblinks
  • References
  • 7: New Theoretical Perspectives on Youth Crime
  • Stephen W. Baron
  • Chapter Overview
  • Key Objectives
  • Key Terms
  • Introduction
  • The General Theory of Crime
  • General Strain Theory
  • Age Graded Theory of Social Control
  • Control Balance Theory
  • Differential Coercion Theory
  • Summary
  • Review Questions
  • Critical Thinking Questions
  • Suggested Readings
  • Suggested Weblinks
  • References
  • 8: Critical Criminology and Youth Justice in the Risk Society: Issues of Power and Justice
  • Bryan Hogeveen and Joanne Minaker
  • Chapter Overview
  • Key Objectives
  • Key Terms
  • Introduction
  • What Does it Mean to be Critical? And Why is it Important?
  • Marginalization
  • Outcast Spaces
  • Jacques Derrida and Justice
  • Michel Foucault
  • Risk and the Risky Society
  • Cultural Criminology
  • Summary
  • Review Questions
  • Critical Thinking Questions
  • Suggested Readings
  • Suggested Weblinks
  • References
  • Part Three: At Risk and Criminalized Youth Crime in Canada: Selected Types and Problems
  • Introduction
  • 9: Issues of Substance Abuse and Related Crime in Adolescence
  • Jordan Diplock and Darryl Plecas
  • Chapter Overview
  • Key Objectives
  • Key Terms
  • Introduction
  • Substance Abuse Among Canadian Youth
  • Inherent Challenges of Measuring Adolescent Drug Use
  • Reasons Why Youth Use Drugs and Alcohol
  • Potential Negative Effects of Adolescent Substance Abuse
  • Adolescent Substance Abuse and the Link to Criminal Behaviour
  • Strategies to Prevent Adolescent Substance Abuse
  • Alternatives to Fear-Based Communication
  • Summary
  • Review Questions
  • Critical Thinking Questions
  • Suggested Readings
  • Suggested Weblinks
  • References
  • 10: Aboriginal Youth Crime in Canada
  • Hirsch Greenberg, Jana Grekul, and Rhonda Nelson
  • Chapter Overview
  • Key Objectives
  • Key Terms
  • Introduction
  • Understanding the Complexities of Aboriginal Youth Crime
  • Historical Context
  • Contemporary Context
  • Aboriginal Youth Gangs
  • Attribution of Responsibility: The Youth Justice System
  • Healing: A More Appropriate Alternative?
  • Aboriginal 'Programs' and Summary
  • Review Questions
  • Critical Thinking Questions
  • Suggested Readings
  • Suggested Weblinks
  • References
  • 11: Street-Involved Youth in Canada
  • Mark Totten
  • Chapter Overview
  • Key Objectives
  • Key Terms
  • Introduction
  • Overview of Gang Research in Canada
  • Gang Typology in Canada
  • Street Gang Membership and Roles
  • Primary Activities of Street Gangs
  • Gang Recruitment and Exit
  • Legislation and Official Response to Gangs
  • Female Involvement in Gangs
  • A Bio-Psychosocial Theory or Youth Gangs
  • Prevention, Intervention, Suppression Approaches
  • Summary
  • Review Questions
  • Critical Thinking Questions
  • Suggested Readings
  • Suggested Weblinks
  • References
  • 12: An Overview of Gang-involved Youth in Canada
  • Bruce MacLaurin and Catherine Worthington
  • Chapter Overview
  • Key Objectives
  • Key Terms
  • Introduction
  • Defining Street-Involved Youth vs. Homeless Adults
  • Typologies of Street-Involved Youth
  • Estimates of Street-Involved Youth
  • Perspectives on Street-Involved Youth
  • Pathways to the Street - The Vulnerable Population
  • Life on the Streets
  • Risks Associated with Street Involvement
  • Institutional Experiences
  • Street Services and Intervention Strategies
  • Summary
  • Review Questions
  • Critical Thinking Questions
  • Suggested Readings
  • Suggested Weblinks
  • References
  • 13: Under the Radar: The Sexual Exploitation of Young Men in Western Canada
  • Susan McIntyre
  • Chapter Overview
  • Key Objectives
  • Key Terms
  • Introduction
  • Background
  • Youth in Care
  • Demographics and Historical Background
  • Sexual and Physical Violation
  • Witnessing Aggression While Growing
  • Police Involvement
  • Work Life/Hustling
  • Staying
  • Sexual Orientation
  • Why People Stay Hustling/Working
  • Services You Wish Existed
  • Attempts at Exiting
  • Messages for Service Providers
  • Summary
  • Review Questions
  • Critical Thinking Questions
  • Suggested Readings
  • Suggested Weblinks
  • References
  • Part Four: Keeping Kids out of the System: Exploring Progressive Approaches to Youth Crime and Justice
  • Introduction
  • 14: Quebec's Experience Keeping Youth Out of Jail
  • Louis-Georges Cournoyer, Jacques Dionne, Michelle Goyette, and Pierre Hamel
  • Chapter Overview
  • Key Objectives
  • Key Terms
  • Introduction
  • The Quebec Intervention Model for Young Offenders: The Right Measure at the Right Time
  • Evolution of the Quebec's Legislative Framework
  • The Evolution of Interventions
  • The Evolution of Criminological Research in Quebec
  • Today's Services for Young Offenders
  • Quebec's Orientations to Guide Youth Offenders Rehabilitation
  • Summary
  • Review Questions
  • Critical Thinking Questions
  • Suggested Readings
  • Suggested Weblinks
  • References
  • 15: Juvenile Justice and Restorative Justice: Reflecting on Developments in British Columbia
  • Brenda Morrison and Colleen Pawlychka
  • Chapter Overview
  • Key Objectives
  • Key Terms
  • Introduction
  • Juvenile Justice Legislation: Social Control to 'Off Ramps'
  • Development of Restorative Justice in BC: The Intersection of Three Practices
  • British Columbia's Justice Reforms
  • Off-Ramps: The Importance of NGOs
  • The Green Paper: The UK's response to Engaging Communities in Criminal Justice
  • Summary
  • Review Questions
  • Critical Thinking Questions
  • Suggested Readings
  • Suggested Weblinks
  • References
  • 16: Key Challenges in Hearing the Voice of Youth in the Youth Justice System
  • Susan A. Reid and Sarah Gilliss
  • Chapter Overview
  • Key Objectives
  • Key Terms
  • Introduction
  • The Legal Regulation of Childhood and Adolescence
  • The Codification of a Separate System of Youth Justice in Canada
  • Diversion of Children from a Life of Crime: Sustaining the Original Purpose of a Separate System of Youth Justice
  • Youth with Highly Complex Needs
  • Principles for Developing Youth Policy-Youth Voice
  • Summary
  • Review Questions
  • Critical Thinking Questions
  • Suggested Readings
  • Suggested Weblinks
  • References
  • Glossary
  • Index

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