The New Testament: A Historical Introduction to the Early Christian Writings

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9780199757534: The New Testament: A Historical Introduction to the Early Christian Writings

Featuring vibrant full color throughout, the fifth edition of Bart D. Ehrman's highly successful introduction approaches the New Testament from a consistently historical and comparative perspective, emphasizing the rich diversity of the earliest Christian literature. Distinctive to this study is its unique focus on the historical, literary, and religious milieux of the Greco-Roman world, including early Judaism. As part of its historical orientation, the book also discusses other Christian writings that were roughly contemporary with the New Testament, such as the Gospel of Thomas, the Apocalypse of Peter, and the letters of Ignatius.

NEW TO THIS EDITION:

* A completely reworked chapter (2) on textual criticism, which now appears at the beginning of the book
* Take a Stand" boxes that are designed to help students synthesize the material in each chapter
* Expanded bibliographies featuring the most up-to-date research available
* New boxes on "Jesus and the Woman Taken in Adultery," "The Ending of Mark," and "The Laughing Jesus"

Le informazioni nella sezione "Riassunto" possono far riferimento a edizioni diverse di questo titolo.

L'autore:

Bart D. Ehrman is the James A. Gray Professor of Religious Studies at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. He has published numerous books and articles, including The Apocryphal Gospels: Texts and Translations (OUP, 2011); A Brief Introduction to the New Testament, Second Edition (OUP, 2010); and Lost Christianities: The Battles for Scripture and the Faiths We Never Knew (OUP, 2005).

Contenuti:

  • Chapters 2-30 end with Key Terms and Suggestions for Further Reading.
  • Boxes:
  • Maps, Time Lines, and Diagrams:
  • Preface to the Fourth Edition:
  • Preface to the Fifth Edition:
  • Acknowledgments:
  • Notes on Suggestions for Further Reading:
  • Credits:
  • Master Time Line:
  • 1. WHAT IS THE NEW TESTAMENT? THE EARLY CHRISTIANS AND THEIR LITERATURE
  • The Diversity of Early Christianity
  • The New Testament Canon of Scripture
  • Implications for Our Study
  • At a Glance: Box 1.5 The New Testament Canon:
  • Excursus: Some Additional Reflections: The Historian and the Believer
  • Take a Stand:
  • 2. DO WE HAVE THE ORIGINAL NEW TESTAMENT?
  • Publishing Books: Now and Then
  • How Can We Know if We Have an Ancient Author's Actual Words?
  • What Manuscripts of the New Testament Do We Have? The Good News and Bad News
  • A Concrete Example
  • Accidental Mistakes
  • Intentional Errors
  • Criteria for Establishing the Text
  • At a Glance: Box 2.6 The Text of the New Testament:
  • Take a Stand:
  • 3. THE WORLD OF EARLY CHRISTIAN TRADITIONS
  • The Problem of Beginnings
  • One Remarkable Life
  • The Environment of the New Testament: Religions in the Greco-Roman World
  • Another Glimpse into the Past: Box 3.3 The Roman Empire:
  • At a Glance: Box 3.6 The World of Early Christianity:
  • Take a Stand:
  • 4. THE JEWISH CONTEXT OF JESUS AND HIS FOLLOWERS
  • Judaism as a Greco-Roman Religion
  • Political Crises in Palestine and Their Ramifications
  • The Formation of Jewish Sects
  • At a Glance: Box 4.6 The Jewish World of Early Christianity:
  • Take a Stand:
  • 5. THE TRADITIONS OF JESUS IN THEIR GRECO-ROMAN CONTEXT
  • Oral Traditions behind the Gospels
  • At A Glance: Box 5.3 The Traditions of Jesus:
  • Excursus: Some Additional Reflections: The Authors of the Gospels
  • Take a Stand:
  • 6. THE CHRISTIAN GOSPELS: A LITERARY AND HISTORICAL INTRODUCTION
  • The Question of Genre
  • Biography as a Greco-Roman Genre
  • The Gospels as Ancient Biographies
  • At A Glance: Box 6.2 The Christian Gospels:
  • Take a Stand:
  • 7. JESUS, THE SUFFERING SON OF GOD: THE GOSPEL ACCORDING TO MARK
  • The Beginning of the Gospel: Jesus the Messiah, the Son of God Who Fulfills Scripture
  • Jesus the Authoritative Son of God
  • Jesus the Opposed Son of God
  • Jesus the Misunderstood Son of God
  • Jesus the Acknowledged Son of God
  • Jesus the Suffering Son of God
  • Another Glimpse into the Past: Box 7.6 Son of God and Son of Man:
  • Jesus the Crucified Son of God
  • Jesus the Vindicated Son of God
  • Conclusion: Mark and His Readers
  • At A Glance: Box 7.8 The Gospel of Mark:
  • Take a Stand:
  • 8. THE SYNOPTIC PROBLEM AND ITS SIGNIFICANCE FOR INTERPRETATION
  • Methods for Studying the Gospels
  • The Synoptic Problem
  • The Methodological Significance of the Four-Source Hypothesis
  • At a Glance: Box 8.3 The Synoptic Problem:
  • Take a Stand:
  • 9. JESUS, THE JEWISH MESSIAH: THE GOSPEL ACCORDING TO MATTHEW
  • The Importance of Beginnings: Jesus the Jewish Messiah in Fulfillment of the Jewish Scriptures
  • Jesus and His Forerunner from Matthew's Perspective
  • The Portrayal of Jesus in Matthew: The Sermon on the Mount as a Springboard
  • Jesus and the Jewish Cultic Practices Prescribed by the Law
  • Jesus Rejected by the Jewish Leaders
  • Matthew and His Readers
  • At A Glance: Box 9.6 Matthew:
  • Take a Stand:
  • 10. JESUS, THE SAVIOR OF THE WORLD: THE GOSPEL ACCORDING TO LUKE
  • The Comparative Method and the Gospel of Luke
  • A Comparative Overview of the Gospel
  • The Preface to Luke's Gospel
  • Luke's Birth Narrative in Comparative Perspective
  • From Jew to Gentile: Luke's Portrayal of Jesus the Rejected Prophet
  • Luke's Distinctive Emphases throughout His Gospel
  • Conclusion: Luke in Comparative Perspective
  • At A Glance: Box 10.7 Luke:
  • Take a Stand:
  • 11. LUKE'S SECOND VOLUME: THE ACTS OF THE APOSTLES
  • The Genre of Acts and Its Significance
  • The Thematic Approach to Acts
  • From Gospel to Acts: The Opening Transition
  • Themes in the Speeches in Acts
  • At A Glance: Box 11.7 The Book of Acts:
  • Excursus: The Author of Luke?Acts and His Audience
  • Conclusion: The Author and His Themes in Context
  • Take a Stand:
  • 12. JESUS, THE MAN SENT FROM HEAVEN: THE GOSPEL ACCORDING TO JOHN
  • The Gospel of John from a Literary-Historical Perspective
  • The Gospel of John from a Thematic Perspective
  • The Gospel of John from a Comparative Perspective
  • The Gospel of John from a Redactional Perspective
  • The Socio-Historical Method
  • The Gospel of John from a Socio-Historical Perspective
  • The Author of the Fourth Gospel
  • At A Glance: Box 12.7 The Gospel of John:
  • Take a Stand:
  • 13. FROM JOHN'S JESUS TO THE GNOSTIC CHRIST: THE JOHANNINE EPISTLES AND BEYOND
  • The Questions of Genre and Author
  • The New Testament Epistolary Literature and the Contextual Method
  • Another Glimpse into the Past: Box 13.2 The Gospel and Epistles of John: Some Thematic Similarities:
  • The Johannine Epistles from a Contextual Perspective
  • At a Glance: Box 13.3 Methods for Studying the New Testament:
  • Reflections on the Contextual Method
  • At a Glance: Box 13.5 The Johannine Epistles:
  • Beyond the Johannine Community: The Rise of Christian Gnosticism
  • Gnostics and the Johannine Community
  • At a Glance: Box 13.8 Gnosticism:
  • Take a Stand:
  • 14. JESUS FROM DIFFERENT PERSPECTIVES: OTHER GOSPELS IN EARLY CHRISTIANITY
  • Narrative Gospels
  • Sayings Gospels
  • Infancy Gospels
  • Passion Gospels
  • Conclusion: The Other Gospels
  • At a Glance: Box 14.5 The Other Gospels:
  • Take a Stand:
  • 15. THE HISTORICAL JESUS: SOURCES, PROBLEMS, AND METHODS
  • Problems with Sources
  • Non-Christian Sources
  • Christian Sources
  • Using Our Sources: Some of the Basic Rules of Thumb
  • Specific Criteria and Their Rationale
  • Another Glimpse into the Past: Box 15.4 Judas and the Roasting Chicken:
  • Conclusion: Reconstructing the Life of Jesus
  • At A Glance: Box 15.5 The Sources for the Historical Jesus:
  • Take a Stand:
  • 16. EXCURSUS: THE HISTORIAN AND THE PROBLEM OF MIRACLE
  • Miracles in the Modern World and in Antiquity
  • The Historian and Historical Method
  • At a Glance: Box 16.1 The Problem of Miracles:
  • Take a Stand:
  • 17. JESUS IN CONTEXT
  • Popular Modes of Resistance to Oppression
  • An Ideology of Resistance
  • At A Glance: Box 17.2 First-Century Palestinian Judaism:
  • Jesus in His Apocalyptic Context
  • At a Glance: Box 17.5 Jesus as an Apocalyptic Prophet:
  • Take a Stand:
  • 18. JESUS, THE APOCALYPTIC PROPHET
  • The Apocalyptic Deeds of Jesus
  • The Apocalyptic Teachings of Jesus
  • The Apocalyptic Death of Jesus
  • At a Glance: Box 18.10 Jesus the Apocalyptic Prophet:
  • Take a Stand:
  • 19. FROM JESUS TO THE GOSPELS
  • The Beginning of Christianity
  • Jesus' Resurrection from an Apocalyptic Perspective
  • Jesus' Death, according to the Scriptures
  • The Emergence of Different Understandings of Jesus
  • At A Glance: Box 19.4 From Jesus to the Gospels:
  • Take a Stand:
  • 20. PAUL THE APOSTLE: THE MAN AND HIS MISSION
  • The Study of Paul: Methodological Difficulties
  • The Life of Paul
  • Another Glimpse into the Past: Box 20.3 What Did Paul Look Like?:
  • At a Glance: Box 20.5 Paul and His Mission:
  • Take a Stand:
  • 21. PAUL AND HIS APOSTOLIC MISSION: 1 THESSALONIANS AS A TEST CASE
  • The Founding of the Church in Thessalonica
  • The Beginnings of the Thessalonian Church: A Socio-Historical Perspective
  • The Church at Thessalonica after Paul's Departure
  • Conclusion: Paul the Apostle
  • At a Glance: Box 21.4 1 Thessalonians:
  • Take a Stand:
  • 22. PAUL AND THE CRISES OF HIS CHURCHES: 1 AND 2 CORINTHIANS, GALATIANS, PHILIPPIANS, AND PHILEMON
  • 1 Corinthians
  • At A Glance: Box 22.2 1 Corinthians:
  • 2 Corinthians
  • At A Glance: Box 22.4 2 Corinthians:
  • Galatians
  • At A Glance: Box 22.8 Galatians:
  • Philippians
  • At A Glance: Box 22.11 Philippians:
  • Philemon
  • At a Glance: Box 22.12 Philemon:
  • Take a Stand:
  • 23. THE GOSPEL ACCORDING TO PAUL: THE LETTER TO THE ROMANS
  • The Occasion and Purpose of the Letter
  • The Theme of the Epistle
  • Pauline Models for Salvation
  • The Flow of Paul's Argument
  • Conclusion: Paul and the Romans
  • At A Glance: Box 23.6 Romans:
  • Take a Stand:
  • 24. DOES THE TRADITION MISCARRY? PAUL IN RELATION TO JESUS, JAMES, THECLA, AND THEUDAS
  • Paul in Relation to What Came Before
  • Paul in Relation to What Came After
  • Conclusion: Pauline Christianities
  • At A Glance: Box 24.3 Paul in Relation to What Came Before and After:
  • Take a Stand:
  • 25. IN THE WAKE OF THE APOSTLE: THE DEUTERO-PAULINE AND PASTORAL EPISTLES
  • Pseudonymity in the Ancient World
  • The Deutero-Pauline Epistles
  • At a Glance: Box 25.5 The Deutero-Pauline Epistles:
  • The Pastoral Epistles
  • The Historical Situation and Authorship of the Pastoral Epistles
  • Conclusion: The Post-Pauline Pastoral Epistles
  • At a Glance: Box 25.7 The Pastoral Epistles:
  • Take a Stand:
  • 26. FROM PAUL'S FEMALE COLLEAGUES TO THE PASTOR'S INTIMIDATED WOMEN: THE OPPRESSION OF WOMEN IN EARLY CHRISTIANITY
  • Women in Paul's Churches
  • Women Associated with Jesus
  • Paul's Understanding of Women in the Church
  • Women in the Aftermath of Paul
  • Ancient Ideologies of Gender
  • Gender Ideology and the Pauline Churches
  • At A Glance: Box 26.4 Women in Early Christianity:
  • Take a Stand:
  • 27. CHRISTIANS AND JEWS: HEBREWS, BARNABAS, AND LATER ANTI-JEWISH LITERATURE
  • Early Christian Self-Definition
  • Continuity and Superiority: The Epistle to the Hebrews
  • At a Glance: Box 27.3 Hebrews:
  • Discontinuity and Supremacy: The Epistle of Barnabas
  • At a Glance: Box 27.6 The Epistle of Barnabas:
  • Conclusion: The Rise of Christian Anti-Judaism
  • Take a Stand:
  • 28. CHRISTIANS AND PAGANS: 1 PETER, THE LETTERS OF IGNATIUS, THE MARTYRDOM OF POLYCARP, AND LATER APOLOGETIC LITERATURE
  • The Persecution of the Early Christians
  • Christians in a Hostile World: The Letter of 1 Peter
  • At a Glance: Box 28.3 1 Peter:
  • Christians Sentenced to Death: The Letters of Ignatius
  • At a Glance: Box 28.5 The Letters of Ignatius:
  • Christians before the Tribunal: The Martyrdom of Polycarp
  • At a Glance: Box 28.6 The Martyrdom of Polycarp:
  • Christians on the Defensive: The Later Apologetic Literature
  • Take a Stand:
  • 29. CHRISTIANS AND CHRISTIANS: JAMES, THE DIDACHE, POLYCARP, 1 CLEMENT, JUDE, AND 2 PETER
  • The Epistle of James
  • The Didache
  • Polycarp's Letter to the Philippians
  • Jude
  • 2 Peter
  • Conclusion: Conflicts within the Early Christian Communities
  • At a Glance: Box 29.5 Christian Internal Conflicts:
  • Take a Stand:
  • 30. CHRISTIANS AND THE COSMOS: THE REVELATION OF JOHN, THE SHEPHERD OF HERMAS, AND THE APOCALYPSE OF PETER
  • Introduction: The End of the World and the Revelation of John
  • The Content and Structure of the Book of Revelation
  • The Book of Revelation from a Historical Perspective
  • Apocalyptic Worldviews and Apocalypse Genre
  • The Revelation of John in Historical Context
  • At a Glance: Box 30.5 The Book of Revelation:
  • The Shepherd of Hermas
  • The Apocalypse of Peter
  • Take a Stand:
  • Glossary of Terms
  • Index
  • BOXES
  • CHAPTER 1.
  • Another Glimpse into the Past: Box 1.1 The Canon of Scripture
  • Another Glimpse into the Past: Box 1.2 The Hebrew Bible and the Christian Old Testament
  • Another Glimpse into the Past: Box 1.3 The Common Era and Before the Common Era
  • Another Glimpse into the Past: Box 1.4 The Layout of the New Testament
  • At a Glance: Box 1.5 The New Testament Canon
  • CHAPTER 2.
  • Another Glimpse into the Past: Box 2.1 30,000 Variant Readings?!
  • Another Glimpse into the Past: Box 2.2 The Abrupt Ending of the Gospel of Mark
  • Another Glimpse into the Past: Box 2.3 Citing Chapter and Verse
  • Another Glimpse into the Past: Box 2.4 Jesus and the Woman Taken in Adultery
  • Another Glimpse into the Past: Box 2.5 Is the Doctrine of the Trinity Explicitly Taught in the New Testament?
  • At a Glance: Box 2.6 The Text of the New Testament
  • CHAPTER 3.
  • Another Glimpse into the Past: Box 3.1 Pagan and Gentile
  • Another Glimpse into the Past: Box 3.2 The Greco-Roman World
  • Another Glimpse into the Past: Box 3.3 The Roman Empire
  • What Do You Think?: Box 3.4 Divine Rulers as Savior Gods
  • What Do You Think?: Box 3.5 Christianity as a Mystery Cult
  • At a Glance: Box 3.6 The World of Early Christianity
  • CHAPTER 4.
  • Another Glimpse into the Past: Box 4.1 The Septuagint: The Hebrew Bible in Greek
  • Another Glimpse into the Past: Box 4.2 Flavius Josephus
  • Another Glimpse into the Past: Box 4.3 Divine Revelation in the Dead Sea Scrolls
  • Another Glimpse into the Past: Box 4.4 Women in the Synagogues
  • Another Glimpse into the Past: Box 4.5 Other Jewish Miracle-Working Sons of God
  • At a Glance: Box 4.6 The Jewish World of Early Christianity
  • CHAPTER 5.
  • Another Glimpse into the Past: Box 5.1 Orality and Literacy in the Ancient World
  • What Do You Think?: Box 5.2 Mark and John on the Time of Jesus' Death
  • At A Glance: Box 5.3 The Traditions of Jesus
  • CHAPTER 6.
  • Another Glimpse into the Past: Box 6.1 Plutarch on Biography
  • At A Glance: Box 6.2 The Christian Gospels
  • CHAPTER 7.
  • Another Glimpse into the Past: Box 7.1 The Jewish Messiah
  • Another Glimpse into t...

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