Neurological Control Systems: Studies in Bioengineering

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9780306303258: Neurological Control Systems: Studies in Bioengineering

To anyone who worked long on the functional organization of living systems, it seems obvious that the central problems arise from a multi- plicity of closed loops Simultaneously active in the control of every act. Severally, they may be stable but, combined, they may crack up or break into schizogenetic oscillation. Whatever they are, linear or not, is beside the point, for in either case the same difficulty of analysis arises. Nor does it help our argument that we deal only with formal neurons or those having greater similitude to real ones. This limited Pitts and me, in 1943, to three theorems of Part III of our "Logical Calculus of Idea Immanent in Nervous Activity. " We still seek a transparent terminology in which to discern their properties. In the face of such difficulties it takes great courage to attempt a servo system analysis of the control mechanisms me- diating any reflex if one would do this as a good engineer. Walt Whitman says of the "Beginners," "How dear and dreadful they are to the earth - appearing at intervals - How all times mischoose their objects of adulation and reward - And how the same price must still be paid for the same great services!" Larry Stark is a beginner. His book must not be mistaken for phys- iology - and there is nothing wrong with his physiology.

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Section I: The Crayfish.- 1 Transfer Function of a Photoreceptor Ganglion.- Methods.- Apparatus.- Constant-Level Inputs.- Experimental Results.- Sinusoidal Inputs.- Experimental Analysis.- Discussion.- Appendix A: Plans for Future Research.- 2 The Random Walk System.- The System.- Conduction.- Nonlinearities.- Dissection.- Inhibition.- Artificial Photosensitization.- Appendix A: Minimum Photon Computation.- 3 Nerve Impulse Code.- The Model.- Mathematical Argument.- The Main Experiment.- The System.- Additional Results.- Fibers Showing Minor Correlations.- Discussion.- Summary.- References and Further Reading.- Section II: The Pupil.- 1 The Transfer Function.- Experimental Methods.- Transfer Function Analysis.- Conclusion.- 2 Stability and Oscillations.- Optical Method.- Experimental Results and Analysis.- Discussion.- Summary.- Environmental Clamping Method.- Experimental Results.- Comparative Results.- Discussion.- 3 Pupil Noise.- Experimental Methods.- Amplitude Histograms.- Noise as a Function of Light Level.- Multiplicative Noise and the Sinusoidal Drive.- Spectral Comparison.- Interaction between Transient Signals and Noise.- Cross Correlation between Pupil Noise in Both Pupils..- Pupil Model.- Physiological Deductions.- Correlation and Power Spectrum.- Summary.- Appendix A: Pupil Unrest: An Example of Noise in a Biological Servomechanism.- Appendix B: Analysis of Pupil Response and Noise.- 4 Functional Analysis of Pupil Nonlinearities.- Methods.- Experimental Results.- Discussion.- Summary.- References and Further Reading.- Section III: The Lens.- 1 Nonlinear Servoanalysis of Human Lens Accommodation.- Experimental Data.- Computation of Transfer Function and Describing Function.- Model.- Discussion.- Summary.- Appendix A.- 2 Absence of an Odd-Error Signal Mechanism in Human Accommodation.- Method.- Experimental Results.- Discussion.- Summary.- 3 Accommodative Tracking: A Trial-and-Error Function.- Methods and Materials.- Results.- Discussion.- Summary.- References and Further Reading.- Section IV: The Eye.- 1 Predictive Control.- Method.- Experimental Results.- Discussion.- 2 Sampled-Data Model.- Sampled-Data Model.- Linear Reduced Model.- Model and Experimental Transient Responses Experiments Step Response.- Frequency Response: Model.- Frequency Response: Experimental.- 3 Variable Feedback Experiments.- Sampled-Data Model.- Open-Loop Transient Responses.- Variable Feedback Step Responses: Model.- Variable Feedback Step Responses: Experimental.- Limits of Stability: Experimental.- Variable Feedback Frequency Response: Model.- Variable Feedback Frequency Response: Experimental.- Conclusion.- References and Further Reading.- Section V: The Hand.- 1 Physiological Model for Hand Movement Control System.- Mechanisms of Motor Control.- Variable Topology of the Neurological Control System.- The Quantitative Model.- Muscle Physiology: BIOSIM Model.- Muscle Spindle Physiology: BIOSIM Model.- Gamma Ratio.- Summary.- 2 Dynamic Characteristics of the Motor Coordination System in Man.- Experimental Approach.- Predictable Input Experiment.- Complex Input Experiment.- Experimental Apparatus.- Predictable Input and Transient Experiment.- Unpredictable Experiment.- Control Experiments.- Free-Wheeling Experiment.- Main Series of Experiments.- Analysis.- Discussion.- Summary.- 3 Dynamical Response of the Movement Coordination System of Patients with Parkinson’s Syndrome.- Experimental Method.- Experimental Results — Frequency-Response Data.- Voluntary Strength.- Free Wheeling.- Group Comparisons.- Tone Experiments.- Step Responses and Tremor.- Conclusions.- 4 Transient Response Dynamics of Motor Coordination System in Man.- Experimental Method.- Experimental Results.- Eye—Hand Comparisons.- Impulse Response.- Effects of Tension on Impulse Responses.- Sampled-Data Characteristics.- Discussion.- Summary.- 5 Sampling or Intermittency in the Hand Control System.- The Model.- Experimental Method.- Experimental Results.- Discussion.- Prediction Operator.- Intermittency and Psychology.- Physiology of the Hand Control System.- Summary.- Appendix A: Peripheral Vs. Central Adaptation with an Experimental Test for the Hypothesis.- References and Further Reading.- The Author’s Published Papers.

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Stark, Lawrence
Editore: Springer (1995)
ISBN 10: 0306303256 ISBN 13: 9780306303258
Usato Prima edizione Quantità: 1
Better World Books Ltd
(Dunfermline, Regno Unito)
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Descrizione libro Springer, 1995. Condizione libro: Good. 1st Edition. N/A. Ships from the UK. Former Library book. Shows some signs of wear, and may have some markings on the inside. Codice libro della libreria GRP82226975

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