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Yuan Dynasty (Large Print Edition)(Chinese Edition)

HAN RU LIN . CHEN DE ZHI

ISBN 10: 7500265034 / ISBN 13: 9787500265030
Nuovi Condizione: New Brossura
Da liu xing (JiangSu, JS, Cina)

Libreria AbeBooks dal 7 aprile 2009

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Language:Chinese.Paperback. Pub Date: 2015-12-1 Pages: 188 Publisher: China Braille Publishing House Yuan Shi is based on the Encyclopedia of China Publishing House published the Yuan Shi obtained by re-publishing to a low vision services in the crowd accessibility read large print books. The book from multiple angles of politics. economy and culture. comprehensive and concise introduction to the Yuan dynasty from all aspects of the history of the demise of the middle is also interspersed int. Codice inventario libreria CY020785

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Titolo: Yuan Dynasty (Large Print Edition)(Chinese ...

Legatura: paperback

Condizione libro:New

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《中国大百科全书名家文库:元史(大字版)》是根据中国大百科全书出版社出版发行的《元史》重新排版而得来的一本服务于低视力人群的无障碍阅读大字版图书。《中国大百科全书名家文库:元史(大字版)》从政治、经济、文化等多个角度全面而简要地介绍了元朝从开始到灭亡的历史各个方面,中间还穿插介绍了众多知名历史人物和历史知名事件,内容丰富而饱满。《中国大百科全书名家文库:元史(大字版)》:蒙古的兴起13世纪前的蒙古蒙古族名称始见于唐代。当时,分布在大兴安岭北段的室韦诸部中有一蒙兀室韦部,居望建河(今额尔古纳河)之东。蒙兀即蒙古的唐代汉文译名。辽、金、宋时代,又有萌古、朦骨、盲骨子、萌古斯、蒙古里、蒙古等异译,或与其他部落一起被泛称为鞑靼,又称黑鞑靼,以别于漠南的白鞑靼(汪古部)。大约在唐代末叶,蒙古一部逐渐迁到原来铁勒人的居地斡难河上游不儿罕山(今蒙古肯特山)地区。蒙古人传说,远古时,蒙古部落被他部所灭,仅两男两女幸存,逃到名为额尔古涅昆的山中,后来子孙繁衍,分为许多支,山谷狭小不能容纳,因而移居草原。其中一个部落的首领名叫孛儿帖赤那(意为苍狼),妻子名叫豁埃马阑勒(意为白鹿),他们迁到斡难河源头不儿罕山居住。蒙古人的祖先传说,反映了他们的先人从额尔古纳河西迁的事实,以及蒙古人远古的图腾观念。蒙古原为森林狩猎部落,进入草原后,游牧畜牧业很快发展起来。在辽朝的统治下,他们与中原地区的联系日益紧密。中原先进经济、文化的影响,特别是铁的输入,促进了蒙古各部社会生产力的发展。原始的氏族制度迅速瓦解,私有制日益发达。部落中的伯颜(富者)多担任首领,社会分化成世代当首领的那颜(贵族,意为"官人")和依附于贵族的哈剌抽(平民)。贵族通过掠夺战争获得更多财富,并俘掳人口作为孛斡勒(奴婢),世袭占有。有势力的贵族拥有从属于个人的那可儿(军事侍从,原意为"同伴"),大首领还组织了护卫军。斡孛黑(氏族)组织的形式虽还存在,但已不是原始的血缘氏族,其成员包括了贵族和来自不同氏族或部落的侍从、属民与奴婢。贵族的儿子继承父亲分配的一份属民和奴婢,分别自立家业,并继续扩展,由此不断分衍出新氏族。在频繁的相互掠夺战争中,一些氏族和部落为了保全自己,扩大势力,结成了联盟。约11世纪上半叶,蒙古部首领海都(成吉思汗六世祖)攻灭了斡难河南的强部--札剌亦儿部,从此"形势寝大"。海都次子察剌哈宁昆(又译察剌孩领忽)受有辽朝的"令稳"(即领忽,小部族官)官号,其子想昆必勒格升号"详稳"(即想昆,大部族官),父子相继任辽属部官。金初,全蒙古各氏族和部落组成大联盟,推举海都长子之孙葛不律(又译合不勒,成吉思汗的曾祖父)为汗,蒙古部首领自此始用汗号。察剌哈宁昆的后裔号泰赤乌氏,葛不律汗家族号乞颜氏,各自都拥有许多部众,成为蒙古部中最有势力的贵族。葛不律汗曾入朝金朝皇帝。金朝君臣深恐蒙古势力强大会成为边患,企图将他杀死,蒙古于是叛金。此后数十年,蒙古与金朝经常发生战争。金朝利用属部塔塔儿攻打蒙古,俘杀咸补海(又译俺巴孩)汗等蒙古首领,并派兵到蒙古剿杀掳掠;蒙古也多次攻掠金朝边境地区。此时,蒙古高原上势力强盛的部落集团除蒙古外,还有塔塔儿、克烈、乃蛮和蔑里乞等部。各部贵族为了掠夺人口、

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