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  • J. Spronk

    Editore: Springer Netherlands Okt 2011, 2011

    ISBN 10: 9400981678 ISBN 13: 9789400981676

    Da: BuchWeltWeit Ludwig Meier e.K., Bergisch Gladbach, Germania

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    Taschenbuch. Condizione: Neu. This item is printed on demand - it takes 3-4 days longer - Neuware -1. 1. Motivation This book is based on the view-tx)int that both public and private decision making, in practice, can often be ilrproved upon by means of fonnal (nonnative) decision nodels and methods. To sane extent, the validity of this statement can be measured by the irrpressive number of su=esses of disciplines as operations research and management science. Hcwever, as witnessed by the many discussions in the professional journals in these fields, many rrodels and methods do not completely meet the requirements of decision making in prac tice. Of all possible origins of these clear shortcomings, we main- ly focus on only one: the fact that nost of these nodels and methods are unsuitable for decision situations in which multiple and possi bly conflicting objectives playa role, because they are concentra ted on the (optimal) fulfilment of only one objective. The need to account for multiple goals was observed relatively early. Hoffman [1955], while describing 'what seem to be the prin cipal areas (in linear prograrrrning) where new ideas and new methods are needed' gives an exanple with conflicting goals. In this pro blem, the assignrrent of relative weights is a great problem for the planning staff and is 'probably not the province of the mathemati cian engaged in solving this problem'. These remarks were true pre cursors of later develor:nents. Nevertheless, the need for methods dealing with multiple goals was not widely recognized until much later. 276 pp. Englisch.

  • S. Kinser

    Editore: Springer Netherlands Okt 2011, 2011

    ISBN 10: 9401034877 ISBN 13: 9789401034876

    Da: BuchWeltWeit Ludwig Meier e.K., Bergisch Gladbach, Germania

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    Taschenbuch. Condizione: Neu. This item is printed on demand - it takes 3-4 days longer - Neuware -Until the nineteenth century Jacques-Auguste de Thou (1553-1617) was among the most famous and most valued of historians. While his first fame was a succes de scandale - the History of His Time was placed on the Index in 160g - de Thou's work quickly found favor with the humanistically-educated learned class throughout Europe. The esteem in which the History was held transcended religious divisions. The historian received letters of praise from staunchly orthodox Spain and Portugal as well as from heretic England and Germany; through the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries his History was read with enthusi asm by certain cardinals at the very curia which condemned it; and so staunch a champion of orthodoxy as Bishop Bossuet did not hesitate to appeal to 'such a great author' for support in his own historical works. ! To the philosophe of the Enlightenment de Thou's impartiality in de scribing the impassioned times through which he lived and the exact yet eloquent style with which he wrote the History of His Time were familiar touchstones. Voltaire appealed to the 'truthful and eloquent de Thou' again and again in his works,2 William Pitt rose in the House of Commons to quote the words of the 'great historian of France' during the early years of the French Revolution,3 Lessing 4 and Herder 5 praised him with poetic hyperbole, and Edward Gibbon re ferred to 'the authority of my masters, the grave Thuanus and the philosophic Hume . . . . 368 pp. Englisch.

  • H. Brandt Corstius

    Editore: Springer Netherlands Okt 2011, 2011

    ISBN 10: 9401034516 ISBN 13: 9789401034517

    Da: BuchWeltWeit Ludwig Meier e.K., Bergisch Gladbach, Germania

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    Taschenbuch. Condizione: Neu. This item is printed on demand - it takes 3-4 days longer - Neuware -The present book collects seven studies on the grammatical aspects of number names. No attempt has been made to unify the notation, but all authors work from a generative viewpoint. Each contribution chosen gives more than just a description of the number name system in a certain language. Thus, the linguist interested in simplicity, types of transformations, functional rules, tagmemic rules, comparisons be tween languages, or language universals may profit from this collection. H. BRANDT CORSTIUS v T ABLE OF CONTENTS A. V AN KA TWIJ K / A Functional Grammar of Dutch Number Names 1 BARRON BRAINERD / On the Syntax of Certain Classes of Numerical Expressions 9 BARRON BRAINERD / A Transformational-Generative Grammar for Rumanian Numerical Expressions 41 BARRON BRAINERD and FRED C. C. PENG / A Syntactic Comparison of Chinese and Japanese Numerical Expressions 53 RANI SIROMONEY / Grammars of Number Names of Certain Dravidian Languages 82 WILLIAM R. MERRIFIELD / Number Names in Four Languages of Mexico 91 HUGO BRANDT CORSTIUS / Automatic Translation between Number Names 103 VII A. VAN KATWIJK A FUNCTIONAL GRAMMAR OF DUTCH NUMBER NAMES At the present time there are quite a number of generative grammars for numerical expressions. Brainerd (1967) even mentions the possibility of giving 'a complete description of systems of numerical expressions in any language', where the transformation theory of number names provides a framework for discussions of a number of universals. He also refers to the advantages of completeness of descriptions being possible in these grammars. 136 pp. Englisch.

  • Laura Pla

    Editore: Springer Netherlands Okt 2011, 2011

    ISBN 10: 9400726473 ISBN 13: 9789400726475

    Da: BuchWeltWeit Ludwig Meier e.K., Bergisch Gladbach, Germania

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    Taschenbuch. Condizione: Neu. This item is printed on demand - it takes 3-4 days longer - Neuware -Functional diversity (FD) the value, range, and abundance of functional traits in a given community or ecosystem is increasingly accepted as a synthetic ecological concept that sheds light on ecosystem functioning. Standard tools for comparing FD across different ecosystems and for different ecosystem processes would be invaluable for supporting a better, more general understanding of the functional role of biodiversity in the provision of ecosystem services. Functional group richness and functional biodiversity indices have been proposed as standards for quantifying the functional diversity of communities and their components.This book synthesizes current methods used to quantify functional diversity, providing step-by-step examples for defining functional groups and estimating functional indices. The authors show how to compare communities, and how to analyze changes of diversity along environmental gradients, using real-life examples throughout. One section of the book demonstrates the selection of traits, and the standardization and characterization of ecosystem data. Another section presents methods used to quantify functional diversity, shows how to relate functional diversity with environmental variables and how to connect these to ecosystem services. The concluding section introduces FDiversity, a free program developed by the authors. The reader is guided through every step from software installation and basic functions, to sample and database design, to graphical projection methods, employing case study data to illustrate key concepts. 108 pp. Englisch.

  • R. B. Mckenzie

    Editore: Springer Netherlands Okt 2011, 2011

    ISBN 10: 9400992440 ISBN 13: 9789400992443

    Da: BuchWeltWeit Ludwig Meier e.K., Bergisch Gladbach, Germania

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    Taschenbuch. Condizione: Neu. This item is printed on demand - it takes 3-4 days longer - Neuware -The purpose of The Political Economy of the Educational Process is to demonstrate in an elemental way what economics can contribute to our understanding of how education occurs. Although in ways similar, the book is significantly different from other studies in the economics of education. Other works are primarily concerned with the effects which education (or, to use the economist's jargon, human capital) has on production, market efficiency, and the distri bution of income. The central concern of this book is how and why the student goes about acquiring whatever human capital he wishes and how the institutional setting of the university influences the amount of human capital that the student acquires. This book deals with the learning process and, therefore, draws upon an earlier book written by Robert Staaf and myself. 1 However, the 'economic theory of learning,' which Staaf and I developed earlier in very pre cise mathematical terms, is extended here through a fuller treat ment of the political environment in which education occurs. A major concern of this work is to make the economic analysis easily understood by professional educators and social scientists generally. To accomplish this objective, Chapter 2 develops for the non economicists the tools of analysis which are used throughout the book. Hopefully, by shying away from esoteric theory and by try ing to make the discussion provocative and informative, the book 1. See Richard B. McKenzie and Robert J. 216 pp. Englisch.

  • E. H. Roberts

    Editore: Springer Netherlands Okt 2011, 2011

    ISBN 10: 9400956878 ISBN 13: 9789400956872

    Da: BuchWeltWeit Ludwig Meier e.K., Bergisch Gladbach, Germania

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    Taschenbuch. Condizione: Neu. This item is printed on demand - it takes 3-4 days longer - Neuware -From prehistoric times man has had a pecial s relationship with seed plants - as a source of food, materials for tools, buildings, clothing and pharmaceuticals, and for ornamenting his surroundings for his own delight (probably in that chronological order which, incidentally, also gives some indication ofthe priorities oflife). Today man's most important staple foods are derived directly from seeds as they have been since neolithic times. (It is a sobering thought, as Harlan\* has pointed out, that nothing significant has been added to his diet since then. ) From those times he must have learned to collect, conserve and cultivate seeds; and the accumulated experience has been handed down. This book then is part of an ancient tradition, for here we are still primarily concerned with these skills. Seeds are plant propagules comprised of embryos in which growth has been suspended, usually supplied with their own food reserves and protected by special covering layers. Typically they are relatively dry structures compared with other plant tissues and, in this condi tion) they are resistant to the ravages of time and their environment. But resistant is a relative tenn and seeds do deteriorate: the type, the extent and the rapidity of the deterioration, and the factors which control it are important to agronomists, horticulturalists, plant breeders, seedsmen, seed analysts, and those concerned with the conservation of genetic resources. 464 pp. Englisch.

  • J. C. Mason

    Editore: Springer Netherlands Okt 2011, 2011

    ISBN 10: 9401068658 ISBN 13: 9789401068659

    Da: BuchWeltWeit Ludwig Meier e.K., Bergisch Gladbach, Germania

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    Taschenbuch. Condizione: Neu. This item is printed on demand - it takes 3-4 days longer - Neuware -The main aim of this book is to present a broader view of scientific software than has been common in the past. The provision of scientific software is no longer a matter of just writing 'good computer programs', but rather it is concerned with the development of an integrated software system wI-,ich offers the user facilities which approach all that he needs in terms of speed, accuracy and convenience. This means that due account must, for example, be taken of the high-speed computing capabilities of parallel processors, the exact computing features of symbolic mathematical systems, the presentational potentialities of computer graphics, and the advisory aspects of knowledge-based and expert systems. When suites of numerical software programs or routines are supported by such ranges of facilities, then they can be justly described as 'scientific software systems', and that is why we have adopted such a title here. The assembly of this book was a direct consequence of the running of a one-day international symposium, with the same broad aim of advocating a 'systems approach', under the title 'Scientific Software and Systems'. This Symposium was held at the Royal Military College of Science (RMCS) in Shrivenham on July 11, 1988 and was attended by 85 people. A very busy but most enjoyable day included invited talks, poster presentations and demonstrations of software products, not to mention various social activi ties. 284 pp. Englisch.

  • J. E. Blakeley

    Editore: Springer Netherlands Okt 2011, 2011

    ISBN 10: 9401036314 ISBN 13: 9789401036313

    Da: BuchWeltWeit Ludwig Meier e.K., Bergisch Gladbach, Germania

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    Taschenbuch. Condizione: Neu. This item is printed on demand - it takes 3-4 days longer - Neuware -This book offers a critical outline of the sources of the history, of the spirit and of the doctrines of present-day Soviet Russian Dialectical Materialism ('Diamat'), i.e. of the philosophical foundations of Marxism Leninism. It is scarcely necessary to stress the usefulness of a short outline of this kind, as Russian sources are not easily accessible in the West and as it is of considerable interest to know the doctrines which make up the faith of the Communists\* in all countries. The material for this book was first made public in a series of lectures at the University of Fribourg (Switzerland), first in French in the summer term of 1949, later in English at the Summer School in the same year. The French text, slightly expanded, was translated into German by Miss M. Hoerkens, Dipl. rer. pol. Various imperfections in the wording of the text and in the bibliography can be explained by the process of formation of this book. The author hopes that such imperfections will not prove disturbing. 196 pp. Englisch.

  • Michael O'Donoghue

    Editore: Springer Netherlands Okt 2011, 2011

    ISBN 10: 940107030X ISBN 13: 9789401070300

    Da: BuchWeltWeit Ludwig Meier e.K., Bergisch Gladbach, Germania

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    Taschenbuch. Condizione: Neu. This item is printed on demand - it takes 3-4 days longer - Neuware -Gemstones is the first attempt in English to bring together the geological, mineralogical and gemmological developments that have taken place during the last thirty years. Though there have been many gemstone books published in that time, most have been concerned, understandably and rightly, with the science of gem testing and have covered that area very well. Details of the geological occurrence of many of the classic gemstones, and of nearly all those which have only recently been discovered, have been less adequately dealt with. Coverage has been restricted to a number of papers in a wide variety of geological and mineralogical journals. Gemstones hopes to get the balance right. In the preparation of the book all the journals and monographs in the field have been consulted so that the book should stand for some years as the authority to which gemmologists and others turn in the first instance. Ease of reference and depth of coverage make Gemstones both a reference book and a bench book. Acknow ledgements I am grateful to Brian Jackson of the Department of Geology, Royal Museums of Scotland who read the manuscript and painstakingly indicated places where amendment or alteration was needed. I am also grateful to the publishers of the books on which the line illustrations are based. The colour plates present in the book derive from a number of sources, which I would like to acknowledge as follows. Plates 1, 4-15 and 17 Crown copyright reserved. 396 pp. Englisch.

  • P. G. Francis

    Editore: Springer Netherlands Okt 2011, 2011

    ISBN 10: 9401089507 ISBN 13: 9789401089500

    Da: BuchWeltWeit Ludwig Meier e.K., Bergisch Gladbach, Germania

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    Taschenbuch. Condizione: Neu. This item is printed on demand - it takes 3-4 days longer - Neuware -This text is concerned with those aspects of mathematics that are necessary for first-degree students of chemistry. It is written from the point of view that an element of mathematical rigour is essential for a proper appreciation of the scope and limitations of mathematical methods, and that the connection between physical principles and their mathematical formulation requires at least as much study as the mathematical principles themselves. It is written with chemistry students particularly in mind because that subject provides a point of view that differs in some respects from that of students of other scientific disciplines. Chemists in particular need insight into three dimensional geometry and an appreciation of problems involving many variables. It is also a subject that draws particular benefit from having available two rigorous disciplines, those of mathematics and of thermodynamics. The benefit of rigour is that it provides a degree of certainty which is valuable in a subject of such complexity as is provided by the behaviour of real chemical systems. As an experimen tal science, we attempt in chemistry to understand and to predict behaviour by combining precise experimental measurement with such rigorous theory as may be at the time available; these seldom provide a complete picture but do enable areas of uncertainty to be identified. 208 pp. Englisch.

  • K. Langham

    Editore: Springer Netherlands Okt 2011, 2011

    ISBN 10: 9400984669 ISBN 13: 9789400984660

    Da: BuchWeltWeit Ludwig Meier e.K., Bergisch Gladbach, Germania

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    Taschenbuch. Condizione: Neu. This item is printed on demand - it takes 3-4 days longer - Neuware -The nature of that transition to maturity [a transition involving 'The acquisition of the sort of paradigm that identifies challenging puzzles, supplies clues to their solution, and guarantees that the truly clever practitioner will succeed') deserves fuller discussion than it has received in this book, particularly from those concerned with the development of the contemporary social sciences. (Thomas S. Kuhn, 1969, Postscript to The Structure of Scientific Revolutions. ) The fIrst two or three decades of the twentieth-century represents a shadowy period in the history of science. For most contemporary scientists, the period is a little too far away to be the subject of a fIrst-hand oral tradition; while at the same time it is not suffIciently remote to have acquired the epic and oversimplifIed contour of history which has been transformed into mythol ogy. Historians of science, by contrast, who want to free themselves from the mythology which is used to legitimize the present state of the discipline, are interested in discovering what really happened, and how it was regarded at the time. For them the nature of science in the early twentieth-century is obscured by what they regard as its proximity in time, and they are disturbed by a general lack of depth in scholarly work in the area, which makes it diffI cult to see the period in proper perspective. 436 pp. Englisch.

  • A. Menne

    Editore: Springer Netherlands Okt 2011, 2011

    ISBN 10: 9401036519 ISBN 13: 9789401036511

    Da: BuchWeltWeit Ludwig Meier e.K., Bergisch Gladbach, Germania

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    Taschenbuch. Condizione: Neu. This item is printed on demand - it takes 3-4 days longer - Neuware -I On the Philosophical Interpretation of Logic: An Aristotelian Dialogue.- II On the Categorical Syllogism.- III CS(n): An Extension of CS.- IV Some Results of Investigation of the Syllogism and their Philosophical Consequences.- V Formalization of a Scholastic Solution of the Paradox of the ¿Liar¿.- VI On the Syntactical Categories.- VII The Logical Analysis of Existence.- VIII On Analogy.- IX The Problem of Universals. 152 pp. Englisch.

  • I. F. Hendry

    Editore: Springer Netherlands Okt 2011, 2011

    ISBN 10: 9401070989 ISBN 13: 9789401070980

    Da: BuchWeltWeit Ludwig Meier e.K., Bergisch Gladbach, Germania

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    Taschenbuch. Condizione: Neu. This item is printed on demand - it takes 3-4 days longer - Neuware -Ph. BOURDEAU, Director, Commission of the European Communities, Directorate-General for Science, Research and Development Opening address K. -H. NARJES, Vice-President of the Commission of the European Communities 3 INTRODUCTION Ph. Bourdeau Director Directorate-General for Science, Research and Development This seminar is in many ways similar to the one which we organized here in Brussels in February 1982 to present to European industry the results of the first EC R&D programme on the Recycling of Paper and Board. That seminar was in fact something of an experiment, being the first one of its kind that we had organized. At the time it was favourably received and we have since had ample proof of its success from the number of practical applications of the techniques developed during the first programme and which were presented at the seminar. The first programme on the Recycling of Paper and Board, which ran from 1978 to 1981, aroused considerable interest. It was consequently followed by a more ambitious programme launched in 1982 and which terminated officially in 1985 - although some of the contracts in fact ran until 1986. This second programme covered the complete wood chain with research carried out on wood production; wood harvest, storage and transport; wood, as a material; wood processing without modification of its basic structure; processing of wood and related organic materials into fibre products; wood as a source of chemicals. 212 pp. Englisch.

  • Helmut Dahm

    Editore: Springer Netherlands Okt 2011, 2011

    ISBN 10: 9401082898 ISBN 13: 9789401082891

    Da: BuchWeltWeit Ludwig Meier e.K., Bergisch Gladbach, Germania

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    Taschenbuch. Condizione: Neu. This item is printed on demand - it takes 3-4 days longer - Neuware -On February 24-25, 1956, in a closed session of the 20th Congress of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, Nikita S. Khrushchev made his now famous speech on the crimes of the Stalin era. That speech marked a break with the past and it marked the end of what J.M. Bochenski dubbed the 'dead period' of Soviet philosophy. Soviet philosophy changed abruptly after 1956, especially in the area of dialectical materialism. Yet most philosophers in the West neither noticed nor cared. For them, the resurrection of Soviet philosophy, even if believable, was of little interest. The reasons for the lack of belief and interest were multiple. Soviet philosophy had been dull for so long that subtle differences made little difference. The Cold War was in a frigid period and reinforced the attitude of avoiding anything Soviet. Phenomenology and exis tentialism were booming in Europe and analytic philosophy was king on the Anglo-American philosophical scene. Moreover, not many philosophers in the West knew or could read Russian or were motivated to learn it to be able to read Soviet philosophical works. The launching of Sputnik awakened the West from its self complacent slumbers. Academic interest in the Soviet Union grew. 288 pp. Englisch.

  • M. I. Gurr

    Editore: Springer Netherlands Okt 2011, 2011

    ISBN 10: 9400959095 ISBN 13: 9789400959095

    Da: BuchWeltWeit Ludwig Meier e.K., Bergisch Gladbach, Germania

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    Taschenbuch. Condizione: Neu. This item is printed on demand - it takes 3-4 days longer - Neuware -In the preface to the Second edition, we made a prediction that many exciting developments would take place in the coming years that would change the face of a new edition. This has indeed been the case and the current edition reflects these new advances. Our picture of the structure of the fatty acid synthetase has changed dramatically, bringing a new concept in enzymology - the multicatalytic polypeptide chain. This new knowledge owes much to the exploitation of genetic mutants, the use of which is undoubtedly going to extend into many other areas of lipid biochemistry. An understanding of the control of lipid metabolism has also advanced considerably during the last decade and we have tried to reflect that here, although it will be some years before a truly integrated picture can be obtained. For this reason we have continued to deal with the control of particular aspects of lipid metabolism - fatty acids, triacylglycerols, lipoprotein- in the specific chapters but we can foresee the time when a chapter on the overall integration of lipid metabolism will be appropriate and feasible. As a particular example, the exciting new concepts of the control of cholesterol metabolism in specific tissues via the interaction of low density lipoproteins with cell surface receptors have been described in Chapter 6. 260 pp. Englisch.

  • M. Macaulay

    Editore: Springer Netherlands Okt 2011, 2011

    ISBN 10: 940107920X ISBN 13: 9789401079204

    Da: BuchWeltWeit Ludwig Meier e.K., Bergisch Gladbach, Germania

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    Taschenbuch. Condizione: Neu. This item is printed on demand - it takes 3-4 days longer - Neuware -We are all familiar with impact. Lesser impacts such as hammering a nail, cracking an egg or stubbing a toe are part of everyday life. More violent impacts such as those caused by car crashes or bullets are fortunately less common but are still well enough known to be taken for granted. Very violent impacts such as meteorites striking the earth are outside our personal experience but we are aware of them. Despite this, impacts remain mysterious. They occur too quickly for us to follow what is happening and the evidence they leave behind is often ambiguous. Over the last thirty years improvements in high speed instrumen tation and developments in computing have made them more comprehensible and an increasing amount of attention is being paid to the subject which is an area of expanding scientific and engineering research. A multi-disciplinary approach is not yet established and information is scattered in many places and expressed in a variety of jargons. In applied mathematics, impacts have provided interesting theoretical problems with elegant solutions but it has been difficult to check results experimentally. Impacts can change the behaviour of materials but similar changes can sometimes be produced in other ways and the underlying mechanisms are not clear. Empirical solutions to engineering problems have worked reasonably well but it is hard to know what to do if things go wrong. 288 pp. Englisch.

  • D. E. Briggs

    Editore: Springer Netherlands Okt 2011, 2011

    ISBN 10: 9400957173 ISBN 13: 9789400957176

    Da: BuchWeltWeit Ludwig Meier e.K., Bergisch Gladbach, Germania

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    Taschenbuch. Condizione: Neu. This item is printed on demand - it takes 3-4 days longer - Neuware -This book was written to provide an integrated account of barley, induding its cultivation, nature and uses. An attempt has been made to cut across the unjustified and obstructive divisions between pure science, applied science, technology, botany, biochemistry, agronomy, and so on. Limitations of space preclude the use of more illustrative material or references, or even complete accounts of various topics. However sufficient information is given to enable the reader to understand the general principles and to find his or her way readily into the literature to obtain further information. Emphasis has been placed on general principles rather than details. In becoming familiar with the literature one becomes acquainted with the effects of the cereal or religion, the English language and the development of agriculture and biochemistry. The comparison between 'parallel literatures' is often stimulating also. For example one is forced to conclude that many of the agricultural problems of poor 'seed vigour' would be overcome if seedsmen used the maltsters techniques for breaking dormancy and speeding 'post-harvest maturation'. Barley is the world's fourth most important cereal after wheat, rice, and maize. It is the most widely cultivated, being grown from the equator to 700N (Scandinavia), from the humid regions of Europe and Japan to the Saharan and Asiatic Oases, and from below sea level in Palestine to high up mountains in the Himalayas, E. Africa and S. America. Some where in the world it is being sown or harvested at every time of the year. 636 pp. Englisch.

  • J. Hammersley

    Editore: Springer Netherlands Okt 2011, 2011

    ISBN 10: 9400958218 ISBN 13: 9789400958210

    Da: BuchWeltWeit Ludwig Meier e.K., Bergisch Gladbach, Germania

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    Taschenbuch. Condizione: Neu. This item is printed on demand - it takes 3-4 days longer - Neuware -This monograph surveys the present state of Monte Carlo methods. we have dallied with certain topics that have interested us Although personally, we hope that our coverage of the subject is reasonably complete; at least we believe that this book and the references in it come near to exhausting the present range of the subject. On the other hand, there are many loose ends; for example we mention various ideas for variance reduction that have never been seriously appli(:d in practice. This is inevitable, and typical of a subject that has remained in its infancy for twenty years or more. We are convinced Qf:ver theless that Monte Carlo methods will one day reach an impressive maturity. The main theoretical content of this book is in Chapter 5; some readers may like to begin with this chapter, referring back to Chapters 2 and 3 when necessary. Chapters 7 to 12 deal with applications of the Monte Carlo method in various fields, and can be read in any order. For the sake of completeness, we cast a very brief glance in Chapter 4 at the direct simulation used in industrial and operational research, where the very simplest Monte Carlo techniques are usually sufficient. We assume that the reader has what might roughly be described as a 'graduate' knowledge of mathematics. The actual mathematical techniques are, with few exceptions, quite elementary, but we have freely used vectors, matrices, and similar mathematical language for the sake of conciseness. 188 pp. Englisch.

  • Franz Guenthner

    Editore: Springer Netherlands Okt 2011, 2011

    ISBN 10: 9400970684 ISBN 13: 9789400970687

    Da: BuchWeltWeit Ludwig Meier e.K., Bergisch Gladbach, Germania

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    Taschenbuch. Condizione: Neu. This item is printed on demand - it takes 3-4 days longer - Neuware -The aim of the first volume of the present Handbook of Philosophical Logic is essentially two-fold: First of all, the chapters in this volume should provide a concise overview of the main parts of classical logic. Second, these chapters are intended to present all the relevant background material necessary for the understanding of the contributions which are to follow in the next three volumes. We have thought it to be of importance that the connections between classical logic and its 'extensions' (covered in Volume 11) as well as its most important 'alternatives' (covered in Volume Ill) be brought out clearly from the start. The first chapter presents a clear and detailed picture of the range of what is generally taken to be the standard logical framework, namely, predicate (or first-order quantificational) logic. On the one hand, this chapter surveys both propositionai logic and first-order predicate logic and, on the other hand, presents the main metalogical results obtained for them. Chapter 1. 1 also contains a discussion of the limits of first-order logic, i. e. it presents an answer to the question: Why has predicate logic played such a formidable role in the formalization of mathematics and in the many areas of philo sophical and linguistic applications Chapter 1. 1 is prerequisite for just about all the other chapters in the entire Handbook, while the other chapters in Volume I provide more detailed discussions of material developed or hinted at in the first chapter. 512 pp. Englisch.

  • Jan Jansson

    Editore: Springer Netherlands Okt 2011, 2011

    ISBN 10: 9401079145 ISBN 13: 9789401079143

    Da: BuchWeltWeit Ludwig Meier e.K., Bergisch Gladbach, Germania

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    Taschenbuch. Condizione: Neu. This item is printed on demand - it takes 3-4 days longer - Neuware -The importance of international liner shipping needs little emphasizing. A large majority of international trade moves by sea, and the liner shipping share in total freight revenue exceeds one-half. Notwithstanding, people in general know surprisingly little about the basic facts of the liner shipping industry, and, in particular, about the economics ofliner shipping. Perhaps because it is an international industry, where shipping lines flying many different flags participate, it has tended to fall in between national accounts of domestic industries. Even transport economists have, generally speaking, treated liner shipping rather 'stepmotherly'; besides the work of Bennathan and Walters (1969), a relatively small group of specialized maritime economists, including A. Stromme-Svendsen, T. Thorburn, S. Sturmey, R. Goss, and B. M. Deakin, have in the post-war period made important contributions to the subject, but so far no coherent and reasonably comprehensive treatise of liner shipping economics has appeared. The first purpose of the present volume is therefore obvious: to provide just that. The book is divided in three parts: Part I The liner shipping industry; Part II Liner service optimization; Part III Economic evaluation of the conference system. Needless to say, all three parts concur to fulfill the first purpose of providing a complete book of liner shipping economics. In Part II a more or less separate, second, purpose has been to develop analytical tools for liner service optimization. Thereby we use different approaches. 312 pp. Englisch.

  • Freeman

    Editore: Springer Netherlands Okt 2011, 2011

    ISBN 10: 9400957122 ISBN 13: 9789400957121

    Da: BuchWeltWeit Ludwig Meier e.K., Bergisch Gladbach, Germania

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    Taschenbuch. Condizione: Neu. This item is printed on demand - it takes 3-4 days longer - Neuware -In this book we have described the major events of embryonic development and considered the underlying mechanisms which result in the production of a viable hatchling. We have, as the subtitle of the book indicates, con centrated on behavioural and physiological topics: it is not our purpose to consider the early embryology of the bird - which is adequately covered by other texts - but we have included morphogenetic information where appropriate. The form of the book was dictated by a belief that interest in this aspect of development is not confined to embryologists, biochemists and physiolo gists. Therefore after describing the conditions in which the egg normally develops we have considered first the whole embryo: what it is like at different stages, what it does, how it gets from one position to another within the shell and how, later, it comes to interact with the wider environ ment of the nest. Only after this have we considered the development of the nervous and sensory mechanisms on which this transformation depends and on the problem of the level of behavioural maturity with which the chick emerges from the egg. With the main lines of development described we have, in the second part of the book, turned to a detailed consideration of the physiology of development: ranging from what may be conveniently described as the 'life-support' systems - gaseous exchange, provision of energy, etc. - to the of hormones in avian development. 392 pp. Englisch.

  • G. Süssmann

    Editore: Springer Netherlands Okt 2011, 2011

    ISBN 10: 9400979495 ISBN 13: 9789400979499

    Da: BuchWeltWeit Ludwig Meier e.K., Bergisch Gladbach, Germania

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    Taschenbuch. Condizione: Neu. This item is printed on demand - it takes 3-4 days longer - Neuware -In connection with the 'Philosophy of Science' research program conducted by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft a colloquium was held in Munich from 18th to 20th May 1919. This covered basic structures of physical theories, the main emphasis being on the interrelation of space, time and mechanics. The present volume contains contributions and the results of the discussions. The papers are given here in the same order of presentation as at the meeting. The development of these 'basic structures of physical theories' involved diverging trends arising from different starting points in philosophy and physics. In order to obtain a clear comparison between these schools of thought, it was appropriate to concentrate discussion on geometry and chronology as the common foundation of classical and quantum mechanics. As a rather simple and 'Tell prepared field of study, geochronometry seemed suited to analysing these mutually exclusive positions. vii D. Mayr and G. Sussmann (eds.), Space, Time, and Mechanics, vii. Copyright 1983 by D. Reidel Publishing Company. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT The editors gratefully appreciate the sponsorship of the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft and the cooperation of the authors and publisher. It is also a pleasure to thank Frau M.-L. Grohmann and Frau I. Thies for their organisational and especially Frau B. Grund for typing and clerical work. D. MAYR G. SUSSMANN 1982 University of Munich viii INTRODUCTION The distinct positions present at the symposium may be roughly divided into three schools that differ in their philosophical interpretation of physics and their meta- . . ~ . 272 pp. Englisch.

  • I. Schoffer

    Editore: Springer Netherlands Okt 2011, 2011

    ISBN 10: 9400992963 ISBN 13: 9789400992962

    Da: BuchWeltWeit Ludwig Meier e.K., Bergisch Gladbach, Germania

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    Taschenbuch. Condizione: Neu. This item is printed on demand - it takes 3-4 days longer - Neuware 224 pp. Englisch.

  • V. Vycinas

    Editore: Springer Netherlands Okt 2011, 2011

    ISBN 10: 9401023972 ISBN 13: 9789401023979

    Da: BuchWeltWeit Ludwig Meier e.K., Bergisch Gladbach, Germania

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    Taschenbuch. Condizione: Neu. This item is printed on demand - it takes 3-4 days longer - Neuware -Cultural twilight means cultural disintegration or death. It means cul tural agony. Such agony gradually fades into the dawn of tomorrow's culture, just as the twilight of a summer's evening proceeds into the daylight of the forthcoming day. Consequently cultural twilight or agony simul taneously is the dawn - the milieu of birth - of future gods. With these words a close interbelonging of the recently published SEARCH FOR GoDS with the present study, OUR CULTURAL AGONY, is stressed. Both of these books belong together and constitute one and the same 'story'. While SEARCH FOR GODS deals with man of tomorrow in his venture to find the way which would lead him to his dawning gods, OUR CULTURAL AGONY attempts to disclose contemporary man's ways of erring - his stray ing ways. Moreover, just as the way towards man's future gods is simul taneously his way to his true cultural self, so are his straying ways his ways of a lack of self. Man's way to his true self is his authentic, innermost, 'bloody' or 'ex-istential' way, while the way of his lack of self is his inauthentic way. The inauthentic ways, generally speaking, are 'democratic' ways: they are the public and common ways of modem society, most typical or characteristic of it. Accordingly, while SEARCH FOR GODS has an indi vidualistic character, OUR CULTURAL AGONY has a social character. 216 pp. Englisch.

  • M. Bunge

    Editore: Springer Netherlands Okt 2011, 2011

    ISBN 10: 9401025185 ISBN 13: 9789401025188

    Da: BuchWeltWeit Ludwig Meier e.K., Bergisch Gladbach, Germania

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    Taschenbuch. Condizione: Neu. This item is printed on demand - it takes 3-4 days longer - Neuware -The papers that follow were read and discussed at the first Symposium on Exact Philosophy. This conference was held at Montreal on November 4th and 5th, 1971, to celebrate the sesquicentennial of McGill University and establish the Society for Exact Philosophy. The expression 'exact philosophy' is taken to signify mathematical phi losophy, i.e., philosophy done with the explicit help of mathematical logic and mathematics. So far the expression denotes an attitude rather than a fully blown discipline: it intends to convey the intention to try and pro ceed in as exact a manner as we can in formulating and discussing phi losophical problems and theories. The kind of philosophy we wish to practice and promote is disciplined rather than wild, systematic rather than disconnected, and capable of being argued over rather than oracular. We believe that even metaphysics, notoriously riotous, can be subjected to the control of logic and mathematics. Even the history of philosophy, notoriously unsystematic, can benefit from an exact reconstruction of some classical ideas. 232 pp. Englisch.

  • Reizo Inoki

    Editore: Springer Netherlands Okt 2011, 2011

    ISBN 10: 9401066752 ISBN 13: 9789401066754

    Da: BuchWeltWeit Ludwig Meier e.K., Bergisch Gladbach, Germania

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    Taschenbuch. Condizione: Neu. This item is printed on demand - it takes 3-4 days longer - Neuware -This book presents a circumspective overview and update of the present existing knowledge of the biology, chemistry and pathophysiology of the dental pulp. It details numerous observations of a group of highly specialized investigators who have united in the common purpose of presenting their observations for the benefit of clinicians, teachers, researchers and students. Fortunately, the dental literature presents abundant research findings about pulp biology and the pulp's responses to various stimuli. This abundance has resulted in an increased interest and expansion of research on this subject. For example, publications abound on the response of pulp tissue to various medications and to a variety of types of dental materials which may be placed near to or at some distance from the pulp through the medium of dentine. One of the reasons the pulp is of such interest is that it not only provides the vitality to the teeth but also produces the dentine - both the primary and secondary, as well as reparative. The latter-type dentine is a result of the pulp's functions in response to disease as the former dentine is in response to health. As an example, some investigators have reported the effects of cutting of dentine and the placement of restorations in dentine which in turn reflect changes on the pulp tissue. These reports have raised a number of questions, which in turn have created a need for answers. 532 pp. Englisch.

  • Peter Harris

    Editore: Springer Netherlands Okt 2011, 2011

    ISBN 10: 9401068259 ISBN 13: 9789401068253

    Da: BuchWeltWeit Ludwig Meier e.K., Bergisch Gladbach, Germania

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    Taschenbuch. Condizione: Neu. This item is printed on demand - it takes 3-4 days longer - Neuware -The food technologist who wishes to produce a gelled product is faced with two basic options for achieving the desired effect; whether to use a protein or a polysaccharide. Although a gel can be formed by either a protein or a polysaccharide, the resultant gels have different characteristics: - Polysaccharide gels are characterised by their fine texture and transparency which is achieved at a low polymer concentration. They can be formed by heating and cooling, pH adjustment or specific ion addition . - Protein gels are characterised by a higher polymer concentration (5-10%) and are formed almost exclusively by heat denaturation. Before reaching a final decision, the technologist must take a number of factors into consideration. The purpose of this book is to help the technologist in his choice by providing fundamental practical information, in one book, on the properties of gels (and factors which influence them) for both types of biopolymer. To help the reader, each chapter is (wherever possible) organised in the same way so that, for example, information on structure will always be available in section 2. The examples in the Applications section of each chapter are not meant to be exhaustive, but to illustrate the various ways in which the particular polymer can be used to form a gelled product. 492 pp. Englisch.

  • J. Cullen

    Editore: Springer Netherlands Okt 2011, 2011

    ISBN 10: 9401079749 ISBN 13: 9789401079747

    Da: BuchWeltWeit Ludwig Meier e.K., Bergisch Gladbach, Germania

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    Taschenbuch. Condizione: Neu. This item is printed on demand - it takes 3-4 days longer - Neuware -The widespread interest in 'stressful' aspects of contemporary society which contribute to its burden of illness and diseases (e.g. gastro intestinal, cardiovascular) has led to a large number of state ments and reports which relate the manifestations to a maladaptation of the individual. Furthermore, recent research suggests that under some condi tions stress may have a more generalized effect of decreasing the body's ability to combat destructive forces and expose it to a variety of diseases. Breakdown in adaptation occurs when an individual cannot cope with demands inherent in his environment. These may be due to an excessive mental or physical load, including factors of a social or psychological nature and task performance requirements ranging from those which are monotonous, simple and repetitive to complex, fast, decision-taking ones. Experience shows however that not all people placed under the same condi tions suffer similarly, and it follows that to the social and psychological environment should be added a genetic factor influencing, through the brain, the responses of individuals. It is clear that, besides human suffering, this 'breakdown in adaptation' causes massive losses of revenue to industry and national health authorities. Thus a reduction in 'stress', before 'breakdown' occurs, or an improvement in coping with it would be very valuable. 652 pp. Englisch.

  • F. T. C. Harris

    Editore: Springer Netherlands Okt 2011, 2011

    ISBN 10: 9401036055 ISBN 13: 9789401036054

    Da: BuchWeltWeit Ludwig Meier e.K., Bergisch Gladbach, Germania

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    Taschenbuch. Condizione: Neu. This item is printed on demand - it takes 3-4 days longer - Neuware -Men of science are sometimes mistrustful of or at least impatient with philosophy. One of them, himself no stranger to hard thought, was one day heard to comment on his colleagues in another faculty and on their propensity to indulge in what he called 'all this nonsense about thinking'. Against this may perhaps be set a meeting of philosophers who decided to discuss the Second Law of Thermodynamics. When asked sardonically by a scientist whether they had disproved it, one of the philosophers replied: 'No, we have concluded that it is not so much false as meaning less' . This curious appearance of cross purposes reflects something more than mere captiousness or misunderstanding. As to the 'nonsense about thinking', it is perfectly true that an excessive formalisation of argu ments does not usually assist clear thinking very much. Plenty of people would be nonplussed by a formal logical exercise of the type: all A is B, Cis B: is C therefore A But equate A to Frenchman, C to Germans and B to Europeans, and tht:y would never run the slightest risk of going astray. 488 pp. Englisch.

  • Andrew Cossins

    Editore: Springer Netherlands Okt 2011, 2011

    ISBN 10: 9401079064 ISBN 13: 9789401079068

    Da: BuchWeltWeit Ludwig Meier e.K., Bergisch Gladbach, Germania

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    Taschenbuch. Condizione: Neu. This item is printed on demand - it takes 3-4 days longer - Neuware -Temperature is one facet in the mosaic of physical and biotic factors that describes the niche of an animal. Ofthe physical factors it is ecologically the most important. for it is a factor that is all-pervasive and one that. in most environments. lacks spatial or temporal constancy. Evolution has produced a wide variety of adaptive strategies and tactics to exploit or deal with this variable environmental factor. The ease with which temperature can be measured. and controlled experimentally. together with its widespread influence on the affairs of animals. has understandably led to a large. dispersed literature. In spite of this no recent book provides a comprehensive treatment of the biology of animals in relation to temperature. Our intention in writing this book was to fill that gap. We hope we have provided a modern statement with a critical synthesis of this diverse field. which will be suitable and stimulating for both advanced undergraduate and post graduate students of biology. This book is emphatically not intended as a monographical review. as thermal biology is such a diverse. developed discipline that it could not be encompassed within the confines of a book of this size. 352 pp. Englisch.