Mass Communication Theory: An Introduction

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9780803977853: Mass Communication Theory: An Introduction

The fully revised edition of this successful textbook has been comprehensively rewritten to take account of recent theory and research and to improve the accessibility of the text. The book provides a nontechnical introduction to the range of approaches to understanding mass communication. It offers an integrated treatment of the major components of mass communication - the sender, the message and the audience - and encompasses the various forms of mass communication in contemporary societies including television, radio, newspapers, film, music and new communication technologies. Throughout, Denis McQuail shows how theories of mass communication relate to the understanding of society as a whole.

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About the Author:

Denis McQuail is emeritus professor of communication at the University of Amsterdam and visiting professor in the Department of Politics, University of Southampton. His books include Audience Analysis (1997) and McQuail's Mass Communication Theory (5th ed. 2005), a comprehensive introduction to the field that takes full account of new technologies and globalization issues. His most recent edited collection is Communication Theory and Research (2006), which presents outstanding studies in communications research published during the last decade. The selections are drawn from the European Journal of Communication, a leading international journal, founded by McQuail, Peter Golding and Els De Bens.

Contenuti:

Introduction
The Rise of Media of Mass Communication
PART ONE: THEORIES
Concepts and Models
Theory of Media and Theory of Society
Mass Communication and Culture
PART TWO: STRUCTURES
Normative Theories of Media Performance
Media Structures and Institutions
PART THREE: ORGANIZATIONS
The Media Organization in Its Context
The Production of Media Culture
PART FOUR: CONTENT
Issues, Concepts and Varieties of Discourse
Genres and Methods of Analysis
PART FIVE: AUDIENCES
Theory and Research Traditions
The Social Character of Audience Experience
PART SIX: EFFECTS
Processes of Short-Term Change
Longer-Term and Indirect Change
Endpiece
Lines of Development

THE RISE OF MEDIA IN MASS COMMUNICATION - EXTENDED CONTENTS FOR USE IN SOLUS ONLYINTRODUCTION
The Significance of Mass Media
Media and Society Relationships
Basic Differences of Approach
Different Kinds of Theory
Communication Science and the Study of Mass Communication
Levels of Communication
Different Networks
Alternative traditions of analysis
Structural, Behavioural and Cultural
Mass Communication Defined
The Mass Media Institution
The Rise of the Media
Origins of Media Definitions
Print Media
The Book
The Early Newspaper
The Press as Advesary
Rise of a Newspaper-reading Public
The Political Press
The Prestige Press
Commercialization of the Newspaper Press
Film
Broadcasting
Recorded Music
New Electronic Media
Inter-media Differences
Freedom verus Control
Issues of Use and Reception
Changes in Society
Internationalization
Informatization
Rise of Postmodern Culture
Individuation
Changes in the Media
Conclusion
Implications for the Public Interest in Media
PART ONE: THEORIES
Early Perspectives on Media and Society - CONCEPTS AND MODELS
The Power of Mass Media
Communication and Social Change
The Potential Benefits of Mass Communication
The `Mass' Concept
The Mass Communcation Process
The Mass Audience
Mass Culture and Popular Culture
Definitions and Contrast
Dynamics of Cultural Forms
The Rise of a Dominant Paradigm for Theory and Research
A View of the Good Society
Scientific Origins
Bias of the Paradigm
Concentration on Effects
An Alternative Paradigm
A Different View of Society and Media
Diverse Sources of Challenge
The Status of the Alternative Paradigm
Implications for the Study of Communication
Four Models of Communication
A Transmission Model
A Ritual or Expressive Model
Communication as Display and Attention (A Publicity Model)
Encoding and Decoding of Media Discourse
A Reception Model
Comparisons
New Patterns of Information Traffic
Allocution
Conversation
Consultation
Registration
An Integrated Typology
New Theoretical Perspectives on Media and Society
The Information Age
Postmodernism
Conclusion
Implications for Mass Media Theory
Media, Society and Culture - THEORY OF MEDIA AND SOCIETY
Connections and Conflicts
A Typology of Society Culture Relations
An Inconclusive Outcome
Mass Communication as a Society-Wide Process
The Mediation of Social Relations
The Mediation Concept
Mediation Metaphors
A Frame of Reference for Connecting Media with Society
Types of Media-Soceity Theory
Main Issues for Theory
Power and Inequality
Main Issues for Theory
Social Integration and Identity
A Dual Perspective on Media
Ambivalence About Social Integration
Different Types and Levels of Integrative Media Effects
Mass Communication and Social Change
Mass Society Theory
Marxism and Mass Media
The Classic Position
Neo-Marxist Variants
Functionalist Theory of Media and Society
Conceptual Basics
Specifying the Social Functions of Media
Uses and Disuses of Functionalism
Media and Social Integration
Critical Political-Economic Theory
Theory of Media and Development
Rise and Decline
Communication Technology Determinism
The Toronto School
Technology and Ideology
An Interactive Alternative
The Information Society
New Theory of Media-Society Linkages
Conceptual Underpinnings
Logic of Change
`Videotopia' versus `Dystopia'
Progressive or Conservative Direction?
Bias to Globalization
Conclusion:
Conflict versus Consensus and Media-Centric versus Soceity-Centric Approaches
Setting the Scence - MASS COMMUNICATION AND CULTURE
The Culturalist Approach
Communication and Culture
Towards Defining Culture
Research Issues
The Beginnings
The Frankfurt School and Critical Theory
Hegemony
Later Developments of Critical Cultural Theory
The Birmingham School
Gender and Mass Media
The `Redemption' of the Popular
The (Semiotic) Power of the People
Links to the Postmodern
Unanswered Questions
Commercialization
Communication Technology and Culture
McLuhan's View of Cultural Change
A Model of Technology and Cultural Change
Media Logic and the Culture of Communication
Cultivation and the Mediation of Identity
The Shifting Boundaries of Social Space
Globalization of Culture
Structural Trends Towards Transnationalization
Transnational Media Flow as a Process
Globalizing Effects
Pro and Con
Concepts of Cultural Identity
Cultural Invasion
Resistance and Subversion
Towards a Global Media Culture?
Conclusion
Time, Space and the Media
PART TWO: STRUCTURES
Media-Society Linkages - NORMATIVE THEORIES OF MEDIA PERFORMANCE
The Status of Normative Theory
Varieties of Theory for the Press and Other Media
Social Responsiblity
Origins
The 1947 US Commission on the Freedom of the Press
Media Codes of Conduct
The Public Broadcasting Idea
Four Theories of the Press
Libertarian Theory and Press Freedom
The Libertarian Ideal
Questions About Press Freedom
Freedom of Expression and Freedom of Property
Beyond `Theories of the Press'
Development Media Theory
Democratic-Participant Media Theory
Other Models
Limitations of the Press Theory Approach
Media Change
New Normative Theory Needed for New Times?
The Concept of a `Public Interest' in Media
Issues for Social Theory of the Media
Concentration and Monopoly
News Quality
Security and Social Order
Morals and Decency
Commercialism
Cultural Issues
Response to Issues
Principles of Structure and Performance
An Interpretative Overview
Media Freedom
Freedom Requirements
Benefits of Media Freedom
Media Equality
Media Diversity
Diversity Requirements
Benefits of Media Diversity
Information Quality
The Objectivity Concept
The Benefits of Objectivity
A Framework for Objectivity Research and Theory
Main Information Quality Requirements
Limits of Objectivity
Social Order and Solidarity
Expectations and Norms Relating to Order
Cultural Order
Cultural Quality Norms
The Range of Application of Normative Media Theory
Conclusion
A Changing Normative Environment
Media `Not Just Any Other Business' - MEDIA STRUCTURES AND INSTITUTIONS
Alternative Perspectives
The Main Issues
The Basics of Media Structure and Levels of Analysis
Some Economic Principles of Media Structure
Different Media Markets and Sources of Income
Advertising versus Consumer Revenue - Implications
Media Market Reach and Diversity
Competition for Revenue
Media Cost Structures
Ownership and Control
The Effects of Ownership
Competition and Concentration
Horiziontal versus Vertical Concentration
Other Types of Concentration Effect
Degrees of Concentration
Transnationalization
Policy Issues Arising
Distinctive Features of Media Economics
Dynamics of Media Structure
The Regulation of Mass Media
Alternative Models
The Free Press Model
The Broadcasting Model
The Common Carrier Model
Inter-Country Differences
The Social and Cultural Specificity of Media Systems
International Communications
Structural Aspects
Multinational Media Ownership and Control
International Media and Dependency
International Media Regulation
Conclusion
PART THREE: ORGANIZATIONS
Issues and Perspectives - THE MEDIA ORGANIZATION IN ITS CONTEXT
Organizational Influences on Content
Alternative Models of Analysis
The Rise of Research Tradition
Levels of Analysis
The Media Organization in a Field of Social Forces
Relations With Society
Goals of Media Organizations
Internal Diversity of Purpose
The Journalist's Role
Engagement or Neutrality
Professionalism
Media Occupational Dilemmas
Internal Diversity of Communicator Goals
Latent Conflicts
Characteristics of Mass Communicators
Women in News Organizations
Pressure and Interest Groups
Relations With Owners, Clients and Suppliers
Proprietor Influence
The Influence of Advertisers
Relations With the Audience
Hostility to the Audience
An Alternative View
Insulation and Uncertainty
Images of the Audience
Conclusion
Media-Organizational Activities - THE PRODUCTION OF MEDIA CULTURE
Gatekeeping and Selecting
The Gatekeeping Concept
Ideological versus Organizational Factors in News Selection
Alternative Approaches to the Study of News Selection
People and Selction
Location and Selection
The News Net
Pre-Definitions of News and Planned Events
Time and Selection
Typification of News by Time
The Question of Selection `Bias'
Access to the Media for Society
A Continuum of Media Autonomy
Actuality Content as a Contested Zone
Relations with Sources
The Planning of Supply
Asymmetrical Relationships and Assimilation
Public Relations and News
Media-Organizational Activity
Processing and Presentation
Internal Processing of Information
An Alternative Model of Organizational Selection
The Question of Bias Again
Standardization and Organizational Logics
The Logic of Media Culture
Alternative Models of Decision-Making
Conclusion
The Attention-Gaining Imperative
PART FOUR: CONTENT
Why Study Media Content? - ISSUES, CONCEPTS AND VARIETIES OF DISCOURSE
Critical Questions and Alternative Discourses
The Cultural Text and its Meaning
The Concept of Text
Differential Encoding
Open versus Closed Texts
Narrative
Seriality
Realism
Differential `Reading' of Texts
Gendered Media Texts
Studying the Popular
Structuralism and Semiology
Towards a Science of Signs
Connotation and Denotation
Uses of Semiology
Media Content as Information
Information Theory
Applications in the Study of Content
The Evaluative Dimension of Information
Media Performance Discourse
Freedom and Independence
Content Diversity
Objectivity in News
Reality Reflection or Distortion?
A Critique of the Reality-Reflection Norm
In Summary
Critical Perspectives on Content
Marxist Perspectives
Commercialism
On the Question of Cultural Qualtiy
Gender-Based Critique
Conclusion
Media Genres and Formats - GENRES AND METHODS OF ANALYSIS
Defining Genre
Two Genre Examples
Western Movies and Television Soap Operas
Media Format and Logic
Media Content Frames
Visual Language
The News Genre
What is News?
News and Human Interest
News Value and the Structure of News
News Bias
The Form of the News Report
Storytelling versus Factual Reporting
Two Versions of the News Sequence
Questions of Research Method
Where is Meaning?
Dominant versus Alternative Paradigms Again
Traditional Content Analysis
Basics
Limits to Content Analysis
Quantitative and Qualitative Analysis Compared
Mixed Methods Are Possible
Conclusion
PART FIVE: AUDIENCES
The Origin and Diversity of Audiences - THEORY AND RESEARCH TRADITIONS
Past, Present and Future of the Media Audience
The Rise of a Reading Public
Early Conceptualization of the Audience as a Mass
From Mass to Market
The Duality of the Audience
A Typology
The Social Group
The Gratification Set
Fan Group or Taste Culture
Channel or Medium Audience
Comparisons and Contrasts
Implications of New Media for the Audience Concept
End of the Audience?
Or Escape of the Audience?
Change But Not Revolution
Three Traditions of Research Into Audiences
The Structural Tradition of Audience Measurement
The Behaviour Tradition
The Social Cultural Tradition and Reception Analysis
Questions of Audience Structure
Types of Audience
Explanations of Audience Structure and Composition
Audience Formation and Flow
Audience Side Factors
Medium-Side Variables
A Model of the Audience-Formation Process
Expectancy-Value Theory
Conclusion
Multi-Channel Futures
The Audience as an Active Social Group - THE SOCIAL CHARACTER OF AUDIENCE EXPERIENCE
Sociability in Media Use
Social Uses of Media
Normative Framing of Media Use
Early Critique of Media `Addiction'
Content Based Norms
Guilty Audiences
Attachment and Dependence
Gendered Media Use
Audience-Sender Relationships
The Concept of Audience Activity
Five Models of Activity
A Flawed Concept
Audience Uses and Gratifications
Basic Assumptions
Social and Psychological Origins
Revisionism
Audience Involvement and Entertainment
Different Models for Different Kinds of Content?
Audience Responses and Feedback
Media-Originated Feedback
Response on Behalf of the Audience
Spontaneous Feedback
In Conclusion
PART SIX: EFFECTS
The Premise of Media Effect - PROCESSES OF SHORT-TERM CHANGE
The Natural History of Media Effect Research and Theory
Four Phases
Phase 1: All-Powerful Media
Phase 2: Theory of Powerful Media Put to the Test
Phase 3: Powerful Media Rediscovered
Phase 4: Negotiated Media Influence
Media Power Can Vary With the Times
Levels and Kinds of Effect
Processes of Media Effect
A Typology
Individual response and Individual Reaction
The Stimulus-Response Model
Mediating Conditions
Source-Receiver Relations and Effect
A Model of Behavioural Effect
Collection Reaction Effects
Panic and Rumour
Civil Disorder
Media and Terrorism
Contagion and Imitation
The Campaign
Basic Features
Filter Conditions in Campaigns
Diversity of Campaign Effects
Reflect...

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